Five similarities between plant and animal cells are as follows:
1. Both are constructed from eukaryotic cells.
2. Both contain a defined nucleus.
3. Both have mitochondria.
4. Both have Golgi bodies.
5. Both are surrounded by a cell membrane.
Three differences are:
1. Plants cells have a cell wall, whereas animal cells do not. 2. Animal cells have lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. 3. Animal cells contain centrioles and a cytoskeleton, whereas most plants do not.
Five internal structures of plant or animal cells and their meaning/function are as follows.
Nucleus - The nucleus can be found in animal and plant cells. This is the brain of the cell so to speak. This is where chromosomes containing the DNA (genetic) information are located.
Golgi Complex – This is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Therefore this would be found in both animal and plant cells. The main function of this cell is that it processes proteins for secretion.
Chloroplasts – This is the organelle that carries out photosynthesis which makes energy for the cell. It is found in plant cells.
Cytosol – This is the liquid portion of cells and is comprised mostly of water. This is where energy reactions and cell movement occur.
Peroxisome – These organelles are found in all eukaryotic cells. Therefore these are found in both animal and plant cells. Peroxisome is involved in the catabolism of fatty acids; they break down long chains of fatty acids into smaller chains which then are moved to mitochondria where they are broken down to carbon dioxide and water.