Professor: Jill Raymond
Aerobic Energy Production
Also known as sugar splitting.
Takes place in the cytoplasm.
There are 8 steps in glycolysis and each steps need a specific enzyme to catalyze. At the end of glycolysis, glucose (6 C) is broken into 2 pyruvic acid (3 C) 2 ATP is produced and 2 NADH come in to keep the energy released from broken bonds. The Bridge
Before going to the Kreb’s cycle 2 pyruvic acid (3C) becomes 2 Acetyl CoA (2 C). As a result, 2CO2 is produced and 2NADH comes in the keep the energy released. Kreb’s Cycle
Takes place in the cytoplasm for prokaryotes or in the mitochondria for eukaryores. Two Acetyl CoA spin around the Kreb’s cycle—one time for each. At the end, 2 Acetyl CoA produce: 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 2 FADH2, 6 NADH. Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Has a series of embedded protein that NADH and FADH (electron carrier) will go through and drop off part of the electron that they keep at the member of the ETC. Members of the ECT extract the energy from electron. Then they use this energy to push H+ across the membrane build an H+ concentration gradient across the ECT. O2 is the final member of the ETC and also is the most attractive member of the chain. Therefore, when NADH or FADH2 arrive, they drop off all the electron that they store to O2 H+ pass the membrane O2 + e+ H H2O
In the ETC, ATP synthase is use to produce ATP
Because there is an unbalanced amount of h across the membrane, H will use ATP synthase to diffuse across the membrane. As H go through ATP synthase the force of H concentration gradient is used to produce ATP 1 NADH 3 ATP
1 FADH2 2 ATP
FADH2 drops electron farther than NADH push less H+ across the membraneproduce less ATP ** At the end of Aerobic Energy Production, prokaryotes produce 38ATP while eukaryotes produce 34-36ATP because part of the energy is used to help glucose and its products pass the membrane. **
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