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    Thomas rose HSSA 101 winter 2010 L romwall Term paper Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are by far the most widely used sedative-hypnotic in the united states.(uppers downers all arounders) this class of drugs was developed in the 1950s as an alternative to barbiturates. Because they have a fairly large margin of safety‚ many healthcare professionals initially overlooked their peculiarities: the length of time they last in the body tissues‚ their ability to induce tissue dependence at low

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    of GABA and benzodiazepines in anxiety. Research has indicated through amygdala lesions and stimulation that the amygdala does indeed play a major role in the expression of anxiety. Research has also indicated‚ through drug infusions to the amygdala‚ that benzodiazepines cause anxiolysis (by increasing GABA transmission)‚ and that benzodiazepine antagonists increase anxiety (by decreasing GABA transmission). Also discussed are some limitations and problems found with benzodiazepine use. On

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    Insomnia

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    . Insomnia Treatments and Efficacy By: Holly Sandoval PSY 101: Introduction to Psychology Dr. Carrie Natale November 5‚ 2012 Insomnia Treatments and Efficacy Insomnia is a medical condition that affects millions of people all over the nation. In fact‚ 48% of Americans admit to having occasional bouts of insomnia and 22% report suffering from insomnia every night or every other night. (National Sleep Foundation‚ 2011) So why are Americans so sleepless? There are many known causes of insomnia

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    Perioperative 5. Benzodiazepines ( Lorazepam/ Ativan) Classification: anesthetic adjuncts‚ antianxiety agents‚ sedative hypnotics Perioperative use: Decreases preoperative anxiety and provides amnesia. Adverse reactions: APNEA‚ CARDIAC ARREST‚ bradycardia‚ hypotension. Contraindications: Severe hypotension; Sleep apnea; OB‚ Lactation: Use in pregnancy and lactation may cause CNS depression. Do not use for pt. with seizure disorders. Interactions: Additive CNS depression with other CNS depressants

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    and loss of appetite. Psychological and behavioral symptoms of opiate use: Drowsiness‚ anxiety‚ euphoria‚ panic attacks‚ psychosis‚ depression‚ irritability‚ heightened self-awareness‚ and a loss of motivation. Sedatives/Depressants: • Valium - benzodiazepine • Ambien -

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    Pharmacology

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    hyperpolarization causing CNS depression) b. In this isoform‚ the two binding sites for GABA are located between adjacent α1 and β2 subunits‚ and the binding pocket for benzodiazepines (the BZ site of the GABAA receptor) is between an α1 and the γ2 subunit. i. α1 subunits in GABAA receptors mediate sedation‚ amnesia‚ and ataxic effects of benzodiazepine 3. Describe the difference in the action of barbiturates at lower and higher dose on GABAA receptors a. BZ increase synaptic inhibition of GABA b. They enhance

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    Prescription Drug Abuse Research Paper According to results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)‚ an estimated 2.4 million Americans used prescription drugs non medically for the first time within the past year. This statistic averages to approximately 6‚600 new people per day who are taking prescription drugs that were not prescribed to them‚ or are not needed to treat a serious condition anymore. More than one-half of the 2.4 million people taking prescription drugs

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    Outline the use of benzodiazepines and beta-blockers to treat stress These are biological forms of stress-management. These are direct forms of management‚ as the tablets are taken into the bloodstream and target neurotransmitters in the brain‚ affecting communication between neurons. They work by increasing the effect of GABAs which reduce reduces the effect of the neurons. It works by increasing the chloride ions into the neurons‚ making it harder for other neurotransmitters to activate these

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    Dangers of Mixing Xanax and Alcohol Xanax‚ or alprazolam‚ is a prescription medication in the benzodiazepine class of drugs. This drug is often prescribed to treat anxiety and panic disorders‚ because it acts as a central nervous system depressant‚ slowing brain activity to produce a calming effect. Xanax obviously has legitimate medical uses‚ but people can become addicted to it. When this occurs‚ the drug can produce harmful physical and psychological effects. These problems are magnified when

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    Action of Barbituates

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    (BHHS) Sherman Howard 1. Describe‚ the action of Barbiturates. They reduce sensory sensitivity to pleasure or pain. Replace’s the need for sex‚ food and emotional involvement. 2. Describe the action of benzodiazepines and their withdrawal symptoms. Benzodiazepines are minor tranquilizers; they cause dopamine levels to surge producing a pleasurable sensation. Withdrawal involves seizures‚ convulsions‚ and even death. 3. What is

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    Facts About Kava

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    traditional water-based kava extracts versus the newer solvent-based ones. There are few effectiveness comparison studies on kava. What we do have are covered here. Note that they all compare kava with the benzodiazepine group of drugs‚ particularly oxazepam. Two studies comparing kava with benzodiazepines‚ oxazepam and bromazepam‚ showed that there was no different in the effects. One 1990 placebo-controlled‚ double-blind clinical trial compared kavain with oxazepam in 38 out-patients diagnosed with anxiety

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    care plan

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    Extrapyramidal side effects: p. 789- A variety of signs and symptoms that are often side effects of the use of certain psychotropic drugs‚ particularly the phenothiazines. Three reversible extrapyramidal side effects are: acute dystonia‚ akathisia‚ and pseudoparkinsonism. A fourth‚ tarditive dyskinesia‚ is the most serious and is not reversible Akinisia: p. 784- regular rhythmic movements‚ usually of lower limbs; constant pacing may also be seen; often noticed in people taking antipsychotic medication

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    Urine Drug Screening

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    Urine drug screening Factors affecting a valid specimen Urine creatinine concentration is assayed to detect diluted specimens. This can be caused by surreptitious addition of tap water or excessive fluid intake before the collection. A urine creatinine level < 1.76 mmol/L indicates a dilute specimen. A repeat specimen should be considered. The temperature of the specimen indicates if it is freshly passed. If the specimen is fresh‚ the temperature should fall in the range of 33–38°C. If

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    Covert Medication

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    Introduction The aim of this assignment is to show knowledge and skills involved in my working practise as a Registered Mental Health Nurse in the administration of drugs to a Service User within and area of legal and ethical matters. In line with clause 5 of the nursing and midwifery council (NMC) (2004) code of professional conduct details of the service user will be confidential I certify that confidentiality has been maintained by use of pseudonyms. For purposes of this assignment the service

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    drug cards

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    Generic Name Cefepime Cefpirome Trade Name Maxipime Bacirom‚ Cef-4‚ Cefir‚ Morcef‚ Romicef Classification Fourth-generation Cephalosporin‚ semi-synthetic‚ broad spectrum‚ cephalosporin antibiotic for parenteral administration. Fourth-generation cephalosporin Mechanism of Acton Bactericidal: inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall‚ causing cell death. It is the best beta-lactam for IM administration; has poor capacity to cross blood-brain barrier and thus is not used for treatment

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    Drugs and Society

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    Alex Swenda SOS-304-OL009 WA 2 1b. List and describe briefly the major structures of the brain‚ as presented in your textbook‚ including the function of those elements that are most related to psychoactive drug reaction. The first layer of the brain is the cortex which covers the top and sides of the brain. This area controls reasoning and language‚ and this area will be less active when under sedative drugs. The basal ganglia are located underneath the cortex and it is made up of by the striatum

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    Anxiolytics Benzodiazepines (BZD) are one of the most frequently used drugs to treat anxiety which acts on the gamma-amino butyric receptor A (GABA A receptor)- an inhibitory neurotransmitter. BZDs are also used as sedatives‚ light anesthesia in surgery‚ anticonvulsants‚ muscle relaxants and even insomnia. The teratogenicity of BZD remains a mystery among prenatal cases however recent study by Koren (2001) showed that there was no risk of major congenital malformations associated with BZD utilization

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    Xanax

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    clinical name for xanax) is used to treat anxiety disorders and panic attacks. It works by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. Xanax is comes in both concentrated tablets and in liquid forms. Xanax is part of the class of drugs called benzodiazepines more commonly referred to as Benzo. Xanax is so addictive that the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) only approves usage of the drug for 8 weeks at a time in the United States. A user of xanax will usually become more dependent on the drug when

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    Radioisotopes Fluorine 18

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    activity so that the FDG does not go to active muscles. Flumazenil Flumazenil (C15H14FN3O3 ) inhibits the action of benzodiazepines such as Librium and Valium‚ which have a slowing down effect on the central nervous system‚ they are used in the treatment of insomnia‚ seizures and alcohol withdrawal. Flumazenil is mostly used with patients who become excessively drowsy with benzodiazepines‚ and sometimes in the

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    PRESCRIPTION MEDECINS USE AND ABUSE Krasimir Atanasov English 5 Teacher: June‚2014 END NOTES 1. Waters Jo‚ “Taking antiobiotics ruptures my tendom: The hidden dangers of everyday drugs are assume are harmless”‚ 7 February 2012. 2. National Drug Intelligence Center (2010). National Threat Assessment: The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society. Washington‚ DC: United States Department of Justice. 3. Bellenir K‚” Alcoholism Source book 2000”‚ p.19‚20‚21. 4. Gordon

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