Below is a study guide for Exam #1. Keep in mind that I am looking at your exam questions while writing the study guide. Be sure you know what the terms are, how they have been researched, and describe your answers in your own words. I decided to limit your test to the first three chapters. You can do quite well focusing on the material below. Enjoy!
Why is drug withdrawal a painful experience for addicts?
Using drugs puts an excess amount of neurotransmitters in the body. When there is an overflow the brain stops making it naturally and when the drug wears off it takes time for the brain to star making the chemical once again on its own system. Some neurotransmitters are dopamine, serotonin, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Gamm-amniobutyric acid, Endorphins. Endorphins are natural opiates.
Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area in the brain and their responsibilities. 左脑 B-speaking W-understanding
What does it mean to be randomly assigned?
The design of a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition.
What does it mean to be debriefed?
A discussion of procedures, hypothesis. And subject reactions at the completion of the study.
Explain what a correlation is and its mathematical representation. A correlation exists when 2 variables are related to each other. May be positive or negative depends on nature of the association between the variables measured. Correlation indicates the 2 variables that change together in the opposite direction. Strength of correlation depends on size of coefficient.
Be very clear about the difference between correlation and causation. What is responsible for carrying information from the central nervous system to tissue? What is an independent and dependent variable?
What do we know about Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and neurotransmitters? Alzheimer’s brains show to have low levels of ACH-Acetylcholine. Schizophrenia is linked to excess levels of dopamine.
What is an agonist/antagonist and how do they work?
Agonist兴奋剂: Chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter. Antagonist 拮抗剂: Chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter.
Agonist works with the muscles, and the antagonist is the muscle working against it in a contraction收缩.
Know all of the various schools of psychology and their arguments. Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements related.
Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather that it's structure.
Natural selection inherited characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely the alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
What is research replication and why do it?
The repetition of study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
What were the Greek philosophers interested in discovering?
Know our policies described on our syllabus well.
Know the key points and messages of ALL of our video presentations; Know all of the research methods discussed in class along with their strengths and weaknesses.
What is the amygdala responsible for?
What comprises the limbic system, endocrine system, sympathetic nervous system, peripheral nervous system & central nervous system. Limbic system边缘系统: Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Hipocampus, and the amygdala. Endocrine system内分泌系统: Group of glands腺体 that secrete分泌 chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily function. Sympathetic nervous system交感神经系统:...
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