Slums

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Slums
Introduction
A Slum refers to informal settlements within urban areas or cities. The informal settlements depict inadequate housing and miserable condition with reference to living standards (Meade p 43). In the slums, numerous individuals seek housing facilities within small living spaces. The slums also lack basic local authority services such as sanitation, collection of waste, water, drainage systems, street lighting, and emergency roads. Most slums also lack schools, hospital, and public places that might offer adequate environment for social amenities. The experience of France illustrates the essence of slums within the modern society (Oberti p 58). Crime and unemployment are on the rise within the slums because of the poor living conditions and inaccessibility of the municipal services. UN-HABITAT offers a clear definition of the slum household as the group of individuals who live under the same roof in a city experiencing lack of durable housing facilities, enough living space, and access to clean water, sanitation, and security of tenure to prevent evictions that are forceful in nature.
Development of Slums Development of slums in France results from two factors: population growth and governance. The modern society experiences almost half the population of the world within the cities. Migration of people from the rural areas to the cities in France arises from several factors. These factors include low income in relation to agriculture, push and pull migration forces, prospects of better jobs, survival strategy for the rural households, and accessibility of transport and communication facilities in urban areas. The other factor that contributes to the development of slums in France is poor governance. This is in relation to inadequate planning and distribution of resource consequently growth and development of slums. Development of slums is a reflection of the crime and unemployment within the nation creating an opportunity for the government



Cited: Meade, Eric. "Slums: A Catalyst Bed for Poverty Eradication." Futurist 46.5 (2012): 43-45. W.L. "The Factors That Create a Slum." American Journal of Economics & Sociology 45.4 (2006): 412.. Oberti, Marco. "The French Republican Model of Integration: The Theory of Cohesion and the Practice of Exclusion." New Directions for Youth Development 2008.119 (2008): 55-74. Jalivay, Nita. "Look Left, Look Wright: Observations From The City Of Light." Papers on Language & Literature 44.4 (2008): 416. Sheuya, Shaaban A. "Improving the Health and Lives of People Living In Slums." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1136. (2008): 298-306. Parkinson, J., K. Tayler, and O. Mark. "Planning and Design of Urban Drainage Systems in Informal Settlements in Developing Countries." Urban Water Journal 4.3 (2007): 137- 149.

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