Revision notes, exam requirements and exam questions
GCSE Sociology 2012
| A situation in which someone lacks the money to pay for the food, clothing and housing necessary to maintain a healthy way of life.
| Achieved status
| A social position which individuals are able to gain through, for example, hard work and or educational qualifications.
| Being prejudiced against people because of their age.
| Ascribed status
| A position or social standing given to an individual on the basis of inherited characteristics.
| A rigid system of stratification in which an individual cannot move from the caste into which they are born.
| Cycle of deprivation
| A social process which may lead the children of poor parents to suffer poverty when adults.
| The proposition that members of the working class develop middle-class attitudes and patterns of behaviour as they become more affluent.
| Environmental poverty
| Deprivation experienced in neighbourhoods that are ugly, dirty, unsafe and which lack adequate services and amenities.
| Gender discrimination
| Treating people unfairly because of their gender.
| Glass ceiling
| The informal barrier that makes it difficult for women to achieve high-level positions at work.
| The money received by an individual in a period of time, for example, wages or interest on savings.
| Institutional racism
| Occurs when the everyday practices and procedures of an organisation, for example the police, lead to discrimination against ethnic groups either intentionally or unintentionally.
| Life chances
| The chances that section of society have of achieving the things which are valued by their society.
| The way in which members of a group use their resources. Lifestyles will reflect the attitudes and priorities of the group.
| Middle class
| The section of society composed of people engaged in non-manual work and professional work.
| Poverty trap
| The particular difficulties that the poor may experience in, for example, finding a job that pays more than is received from benefits.
| The proposition that many non-manual jobs in a modern economy put their workers in situations very similar to that of the manual factory worker.
| Racial discrimination
| Treating people unfairly because of their ethnicity.
| Attitudes to and beliefs about race which usually involve negative stereotypes of another race and lead to discrimination against people of that race.
| Relative deprivation
| Felt when people compare their own situation to that of others whom they believe to be unfairly better off.
| Relative poverty
| A situation in which someone cannot afford to possess the kind of things and participate in the kind of activities considered by members of their society to be a normal part of life.
| Being prejudiced against people because of their gender.
| A form of stratification in which a section f the society has no rights. Individuals in this section of society are items of property which can be bought and sold.
| Social exclusion
| When people are unable, or feel unable to play a full part in society. This may be owing to the lack of material resources, discrimination by others or a sense that the rest of society neither wants or respects them.
| Subjective class
| The class in which an individual places themselves.
| Trade union
| An organisation established by employees to protect their economic interests.
| The group of people at the very bottom of the social structure who either by their economic situation or culture, are cut off from the rest of society.
| The assets owned by an individual, for example, house, savings, a business.
| Welfare scrounger
| An individual who makes no contribution to society and exploits the benefits system, claiming as much as they can get away with.
| Working class
| The section of...
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