Topics: Sociology, Social class, Social stratification Pages: 26 (8194 words) Published: September 15, 2013
Social Inequality

Revision notes, exam requirements and exam questions

GCSE Sociology 2012

Absolute poverty| A situation in which someone lacks the money to pay for the food, clothing and housing necessary to maintain a healthy way of life.| Achieved status| A social position which individuals are able to gain through, for example, hard work and or educational qualifications.| Ageism| Being prejudiced against people because of their age.| Ascribed status| A position or social standing given to an individual on the basis of inherited characteristics.| Caste| A rigid system of stratification in which an individual cannot move from the caste into which they are born.| Cycle of deprivation| A social process which may lead the children of poor parents to suffer poverty when adults.| Embourgeoisement| The proposition that members of the working class develop middle-class attitudes and patterns of behaviour as they become more affluent. | Environmental poverty| Deprivation experienced in neighbourhoods that are ugly, dirty, unsafe and which lack adequate services and amenities.| Gender discrimination| Treating people unfairly because of their gender.| Glass ceiling| The informal barrier that makes it difficult for women to achieve high-level positions at work.| Income| The money received by an individual in a period of time, for example, wages or interest on savings.| Institutional racism| Occurs when the everyday practices and procedures of an organisation, for example the police, lead to discrimination against ethnic groups either intentionally or unintentionally.| Life chances| The chances that section of society have of achieving the things which are valued by their society.| Lifestyle| The way in which members of a group use their resources. Lifestyles will reflect the attitudes and priorities of the group.| Middle class| The section of society composed of people engaged in non-manual work and professional work.| Poverty trap| The particular difficulties that the poor may experience in, for example, finding a job that pays more than is received from benefits.| Proletarianisation| The proposition that many non-manual jobs in a modern economy put their workers in situations very similar to that of the manual factory worker.| Racial discrimination| Treating people unfairly because of their ethnicity.| Racism| Attitudes to and beliefs about race which usually involve negative stereotypes of another race and lead to discrimination against people of that race.| Relative deprivation| Felt when people compare their own situation to that of others whom they believe to be unfairly better off.| Relative poverty| A situation in which someone cannot afford to possess the kind of things and participate in the kind of activities considered by members of their society to be a normal part of life.| Sexism| Being prejudiced against people because of their gender.| Slavery| A form of stratification in which a section f the society has no rights. Individuals in this section of society are items of property which can be bought and sold.| Social exclusion| When people are unable, or feel unable to play a full part in society. This may be owing to the lack of material resources, discrimination by others or a sense that the rest of society neither wants or respects them.| Subjective class| The class in which an individual places themselves.| Trade union| An organisation established by employees to protect their economic interests.| Underclass| The group of people at the very bottom of the social structure who either by their economic situation or culture, are cut off from the rest of society.| Wealth| The assets owned by an individual, for example, house, savings, a business.| Welfare scrounger| An individual who makes no contribution to society and exploits the benefits system, claiming as much as they can get away with.| Working class| The section of...
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