Learning and Memory
Learning – a relatively lasting change in behavior that is the result of experience
Theories of Learning
1. Classical Conditioning
a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus discovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist
Unconditioned Stimulus – one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response Unconditioned Response – the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus – previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response – the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus 2. Operant Conditioning
a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior coined by behaviorist, B.F. Skinner
Components of Operant Conditioning
1. Reinforcements – any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows a. Positive Reinforcers – favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior b. Negative Reinforcers – the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior 2. Punishment – the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows a. Positive Punishment – the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows b. Negative Punishment – occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs
the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the "stamping in" of connections, forgetting involves "stamping out" connections. Edward L. Thorndike
4. Habituation – a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations. 5. Cognitive Learning – an approach to psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes.
Memory – the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information
Basic Types of Memory
1. Sensory Memory
sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief period of time, generally for no longer than a half-second for visual information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information 2. Short-Term Memory
the information we are currently aware of or thinking about
most of the information stored will be kept for approximately 20 to 30 seconds 3. Long-Term Memory
the continuing storage of information
This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed.
Information Processing – the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information
Information Processing Model
1. Attention – Information enters our brains through sensory receptors that hold onto that information for mere seconds. Our brains filter and select things for us to pay attention to. 2. Encoding – Once we have perceived information, we move that information into either: a. Short-Term/Immediate Memory – lasts for only a few seconds b. “Working” Memory – holds more information for longer, but only if you’re actively working with it 3. Storage – the act of moving information from short-term to long-term memory a. Repetition – the act of practicing your recall of information b. Elaboration – the process of connecting new information with prior information and looking for relationships between information c. Organizational Schemas – Your brain will find it easier to remember information if you make associations or connections between ideas. d. Multiple Modes – When you’re studying, you can create stronger memories if you engage your visual, auditory, and kinesthetic senses. Information stored using more than one "sensory mode" will be easier for you to remember and recall later. e. Sleep & Breaks –...
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