Phobias and Addiction

Topics: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Behaviorism Pages: 3 (732 words) Published: July 15, 2013
Audriana Rogers
Phobias and Addiction Paper
Psy 300
Instructor: Shane Williamson
July 8th 2013
We have to ask ourselves what does phobia or addiction has to do with classical and operant conditioning. In this paper I will explain why how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as: O Explore how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. O Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.

O Explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.

Classical Conditioning
A process of behavior modification in which a subject learns to respond in a desired manner such that a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly presented in association with a stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that elicits a natural response (the unconditioned response) until the neutral stimulus alone elicits the same response (now called the conditioned response). For example, in Pavlov's experiments, food is the unconditioned stimulus that produces salivation, a reflex or unconditioned response. The bell is the conditioned stimulus, which eventually produces salivation in the absence of food. This salivation is the conditioned response

Operant Conditioning
a process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior. Psychologists have suggested phobias develop as a consequence of conditioning, and many phobic’s can remember a specific episode which caused the onset of their phobia (Freud, 1909; Ost and Hugdahl, 1981). However, research suggests it is not necessary for a specific episode to occur to change behavior. Kirsch et al (2004) studied rats in a maze. They were left to explore before food was...
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