how to write a proposal

Topics: Theory, Experiment, Time Pages: 2 (331 words) Published: April 15, 2014
Introduction (40%)

Background
Provide a focused review of literature relevant to proposal and any theoretical model that you would like to propose. Example: “Smith (19XX) reviewed literature on spacing of training and found that spacing study trials improved long-term retention…” Hypothesis

Based on literature and own ideas, state the objective of the experiment and describe the results that you expect to obtain? Example: “The objective of the present proposal is to test the notion that spacing study trials also improves short-term retention as tested by…”

Method (40%)
Subjects
State the kind and number of subjects whom you propose to use in your experiment. Example:
“Experimental participants will include 48 college students…” Apparatus/Materials
Describe any special verbal materials and/or apparatus that you intend to use. Be as specific as possible. Example:
“Participants will be shown single digits (0-9) displayed on a tachistoscope…” Procedure
Describe the experimental protocol in detail and include the rationale where relevant. Example: “Study trials will last 2 secs, immediately followed by a mask to effectively erase persistent visual traces…” Design

Describe the arrangement of experimental conditions both between and within subjects. Example: “Subjects will be randomly assigned to either massed or spaced conditions (n = 24)… Results (10%)
Start by explaining how dependent variables will be calculated. Based on your hypothesis, describe the pattern of expected results. Use notional data in figures or tables to illustrate. “Percent correct responses will be calculated for each subject. The mean values for spaced are expected to be greater than massed conditions, as illustrated in Figure 1…

Figure 1. Memory Performance in Massed and Spaced Conditions Discussion (8%)
Summarize your expected results. Assuming those results, what are the implications for cognitive theories? Example: “The results showed that spacing effects reported for...


References: (2%)
List all references cited anywhere in report. Use standard APA style. Example:
Smith, M. (19XX). Effects of spacing on long-term retention. Journal of Irreproducible Results, 78, 1123-1125.
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