Decision Support Systems
Managers and Decision
A decision refers to a choice made between alternatives.
Why Managers Need the Support of Information
Technology. It is very difficult to make good
decisions without valid, timely and relevant
Number of alternatives to be considered is increasing
Many decisions are made under time pressure.
Due to uncertainty in the decision environment, it is
frequently necessary to conduct a sophisticated analysis.
It is often necessary to rapidly access remote information. Can we make better decisions?
Decision makers go through a fairly systematic process.
“Process or Problem”
Courses of Action
Act on it
The nature of decisions
Information systems can support
decision-making levels. These include
the three levels of management
Strategic management, tactical
management, and operational
A board of directors and an executive
committee of the CEO develop longrange planning.
Decisions made at the strategic level
tend to be unstructured.
Mid-level mangers deal with middle
level management activities such as
short-term planning, medium range
plans and control.
Decisions made at the tactical
management level tend to be semistructured.
Operating managers deal with day-today operations of an organization, such as assigning employees to tasks,
or placing or purchase an order.
Decisions made at the operational
management level tend to be more
Structured decisions are repetitive
and routine problems for which
standard solutions exist.
Ex: finding an appropriate inventory
level, finding an optimal investment
MIS primarily analyzes structured
Semi-structured problems fall between
structured and unstructured problems.
Only some of the phases are structured in
It requires a combination of standard
procedures and individual judgment.
Ex: annual evaluation of employees,
trading bonds, setting marketing budgets
for consumer products.
Unstructured problems are novel and nonroutine, complex. For unstructured problems we cannot
specify some procedures to make a
Ex: expanding the business, moving
operations to foreign countries.
IS must provide a wide range of
information products to support these types
of decisions at all levels of the organization.
Decision making ranges from simple to very complex decisions that fall along a continuum that ranges from structured to unstructured. Structured processes refer to routine & repetitive problems with standard solutions. While Unstructured are "fuzzy," complex problems with no clear-cut solutions.
O ect ive
S r at egic
Pr obl em
Impor t ant
st r uct ur ed
O at ional
Unst r uct ur ed
Inf or mat ion
Repet it ive
S r uct ur ed
O at ion
Mul t i
It s been
done bef or e
Day t o Day
Management Support Systems
Management Information Systems
Decision Support Systems
Executive Information Systems
MIS primarily provides information on
the firm’s performance to help
managers in monitoring and
controlling the business.
Information provided by MIS is used by
decision makers at the operational and
tactical levels of organization.
They face with more structured and semistructured types of decision situations. A typical MIS report might show a
summary of monthly sales for each of the
major sales territories of a company.
MIS typically produces fixed, regularly...
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