Ap Music Theory Study Guide

Topics: Chord, Counterpoint, Harmony Pages: 22 (2163 words) Published: October 17, 2012
work was taken off various websites/my own knowledge

Cadence- two chord progression that occurs at the end of a phrase

Conclusive Cadence- anything ending on a tonic triad

Inconclusive Cadence- sounds incomplete(half/deceptive) not ending on tonic Half- any chord going to a V

Phrygian Half- IV- V
Authentic- V (or vii at least that’s what musictheory.net says ) going to I Perfect Authentic (PAC)- 3 conditions

1. Must be V chord first rather than vii

2. Must both be in root position

3. Last chord must have the tonic at the top of the chord

Imperfect- everything else

Plagal-IV(iv) to I(i)

Deceptive- V to anything else except I(usually vi?)

Cadential extension- delaying cadence by adding additional things to the closing phrase

Coda- a musical selection that closes the harmonic/melodic phrases reinforce the final cadence

Codetta-marks end of sonatas, ends in a perfect cadence; not necessarily signals the end of the piece; a smaller version of a coda

Contour-shape of the melody

Countermelody-sequence of notes that looks like the melody but isn’t and it’s meant to be played with the leading melody

Elision (phrase elision)-last note of first phrase serves to be the first note of the second phrase

Fragment (fragmented motive)-using part of melodic line rather than the entirety-

Introduction ?

Jazz and pop terms

Bridge-the middle section in a jazz tune that contrasts from the main sections it’s the “B” in the AABA form

Chorus-one complete cycle of a tune

Song form (AABA)- most common pop/jazz form(Gershwin, Cole Porter, Harold Arlen, etc.)

Turnaround-a bunch of chords that end up in a cadence on the tonic and leads back to the beginning chords or the next set of chords

twelve-bar blues-mostly I-IV-V form and in 4/4 most popular blues form (from some other source: three four-bar phrases, aab or abc patter, most commonly I/I/I/I/IV/IV/I/I/V/IV/I/I)

Melodic procedures

Augmentation-rhythmic theme changed through addition

Conjunct-also got step it’s the linear motion between two consecutive notes in a scale

Diminution-division of rhythm

Disjunct-larger than consecutive notes linear motion also called a skip

extension, phrase extension-extending a phrase length through up-beat, body, or cadence portions of the phrase

fragmentation- dividing musical ideas into segments

internal expansion-extending of phrase length with something added or repeated not at the cadence.

inversion, melodic inversion- Melodies can be inverted as well. An inversion of a melody is the melody written upside down. Where the original melody goes up, the inversion goes down and vice versa. For example, if the original melody is A-D-C-D, the inversion would be A-E-F-E. literal repetition: the repeat sign

motivic transformation: change of rhythmic theme

octave displacement: moving one or more notes of a phrase to a different octave

retrograde-direction opposite of the movement given

rhythmic transformation- theme’s rhythm is changed to vary from previous statements

sequence-restatement of motif at a higher or lower pitch

sequential repetition- transposing a complete idea (both melody and harmony) to a different scale-degree

transposition –moving a phrase up or down a staff on the same interval

truncation- subtracting rhythmic theme

Motive(motif)- small phrase that can easily identify the piece(think Beethoven 5)

Period-group of phrases that usually consists of antecedent and consequent usually 8+ phrases

Antecedent-first phrase

Consequent-last phrase

contrasting period-melodic makeup of the second phrase is different than the first

double period-four phrase period that ends on a strong cadence

parallel period-melodic makeup of two phrases are similar

Phrase group-group of phrases defined by terminal phrase(usually PAC sometimes plagal so mostly anything ending on...
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