Cell Biology Review
1. What are the four basic parts that all cells must have?
2. Draw a simple rod-shaped prokaryote with these features: Cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, DNA, one plasmid and ribosomes. Which feature is unique to bacteria?
3. How might you tell the difference a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic one? Which is the most primitive? Which is the most complex?
4. What organisms are classified as prokaryotes?
5. Know all the organelles we covered and their functions. Be able to predict what a cell could NOT do if that organelle was damaged or missing.
6. Which organelle removes sick and crippled cells and can even commit cell suicide?
7. Which types of cells would have large numbers of mitochondria? Explain.
8. What kinds of cells have cell membranes?
9. Which organelles do the following:
• Produce proteins
• Produce ribosomes
• Transport proteins
• Sort and package proteins
10. Name four ways to tell a plant cell from an animal cell.
11. In which organelle is sugar produced by photosynthesis? In which organelle are the sugars broken down to release energy?
12. Given a word bank, be able to label a diagram of a microscope.
13. What should you use to clean the lens of a microscope?
14. What happens to the size of the field of view when you change from the low-power objective to the high-power objective? What happens to the magnification?
15. If the magnification of the eyepiece is 10X, what is the magnification of each of the following lenses:
Low power (4X) =
Medium power (10X) =
High power (40X) =
Oil Immersion lens (100X) =
16. Which adjustment knob do you use when focusing on high-power?
17. What stain did you use on the potato cells and why? What did you see?
18. Which structure is responsible for maintaining the size and shape of a plant cells, even in hypotonic and hypertonic solutions? What is it made of?
19. What are the components of the cell membrane? How are they arranged?
20. Distinguish between passive and active transport.
21. How are facilitated diffusion and active transport similar? How are they different?
22. How does each of the following affect diffusion rates:
a. decrease in temperature
b. increase in the concentration of a solute
c. increase in the permeability of the membrane
23. Imagine a pouch with a selectively permeable membrane containing a saltwater solution. It is immersed in a dish of fresh water. Which way will the water move? If you add salt to the water in the dish, how will this affect water movement? What living systems exist under analogous conditions? How do you think they maintain water balance?
24. Draw an animal cell is each of the following solutions and describe the results. a. hypotonic
25. Distinguish between turgor pressure and plasmolysis.
26. Draw and explain diagrams representing endocytosis and exocytosis.