"Protein" Essays and Research Papers


Proteins Are the basic materials of every body cell. Body cells are constantly wearing out. As a result, they are continuously in need of replacement Of the six nutrients group, only proteins can make new cells rebuild tissue. By the age of 4 years, body protein content reaches the adult level of about 18% of body weight. An adequate supply of proteins in the daily diet is essential for the maintenance of health. The word protein is a Greek derivation and means “of first importance”. Composition...

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PROTEIN TRANSLATION 1. Initiation Translation To begin translation: large and small ribosomal subunit, along with the initiating tRNA, assembles onto the mRNA 2. Translation Elongation The next amino acyl-tRNA enters the ribosome at the A site The amino acid at the P site is transferred to the tRNA at the A site. The ribosome moves one codon farther along the mRNA, releasing the empty tRNA through the E (exit) site. The A site is free for the next incoming RNA. The cycle is repeated as the...

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Protein Denaturation

Practical 3: Proteins Introduction: ‘Protein’ also an important food component, we commonly take in from our diet. In this experiment we have studied a certain property of protein, i.e., protein can be denatured by various factors. A. Denaturation of egg white Results: Egg white sample in water baths | Test tube | temperature | Observations | 1 | 60°C | Took 7minutes and 15 seconds to turn white and form white participate. | 2 | 80°C | Took 2minutes and 20 seconds to turn white...

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Protein Synthesis

Identifying sites of protein synthesis in Chlamydomonas using erythromycin and cyclohexamide as protein synthesis inhibitors. October 16, 2009 Introduction: In living cells, prokaryotic or eukaryotic, the synthesis (construction) of proteins is accomplished by similar machinery. Amino acids, ribosomes, messenger RNA (mRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA), are all necessary for the building of functional proteins in a cell. Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis in a cell, and there are two...

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Protein Biochemistry

Lab 2: Internet Resources for Protein Biochemistry Part 1-1: A) Protein Accession Number = P00939 Name of Protein:  Full Name = Triosephosphate isomerase; Short Name=TIM Organism where the protein is found: Oryctolagus cuniculus = Rabbit Nuber of amino acids in the protein: AA = 248 B) * Amino Acid Sequence: >gi|136066|sp|P00939.1|TPIS_RABIT RecName: Full=Triosephosphate isomerase; Short=TIM;...

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Protein Metabolism

Proteins play an important role in the human body. The DNA molecule controls the synthesis of proteins. The DNA contains genes which are sequences of nucleotides and bases. Proteins are used for growth and repair. Proteins are made up of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Firstly 'amino acid synthesis' is the set of biochemical processes by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds. The substrates for these processes are various compounds in the organism's diet...

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Protein and Beetroot

used were 2,4,7,9 and 10. All of these solutions affected the beetroot, but the most acidic solutions were the ones that did the most damage to the membrane. This is because the ph affects the proteins within the phospho lipid bi-layer. The acidic ph breaks the hydrogen bonds therefore denaturing the proteins and allowing beetroot pigment to secrete form the cell. 7. The ethanol solutions that were used were 11%, 25% and 50% ethanol. The beetroot cell was almost immediately affected by the 50% alcohol...

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Are Protein Shakes Good For You?

17 May 2013 Are Protein Shakes Good For You? According to Flex bodybuilding magazine, protein shake is the number one selling bodybuilding supplement. Protein powders have been around for years, but they are currently gaining popularity and becoming more widely used for their health benefits. In fact protein is one of three food components we require in large quantities. Others are carbohydrates and fats. Your body uses proteins in your diet to build new cells, maintain tissues, and synthesize...

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Extraction and Isolation of Proteins

EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION OF PROTEINS Background of the experiment Pure proteins are not readily available for study or use. There are certain methods that should be done in order to obtain proteins from its sources. The objective of this experiment is to isolate casein from milk and albumin from egg and to identify and explain the principles behind the methods employed for protein extraction. Results and Discussion There are many possible sources where we could get proteins. It can be from plants...

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Thesis Essay Protein

April 22, 2015 Does protein help to build muscle? The latest craze is about protein and how it affects building muscles and building muscle strength. Today, there are many athletes that use it as a supplement. There are many protein supplements available that are claiming to help people who work out to build muscle faster.       Protein is a structure within our bodies that consists of amino acids. The cells in our bodies need this to function properly. If we did not have protein, our body’s functions...

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Measuring Protein in Solution

Laboratory Exercise #3 Measuring Protein in Solution Abstract The purpose of this lab was to learn about the Biuret assay reaction to determine if it can detect proteins and amino acids; also, to understand the process of “salting out” proteins and how to determine the amount of protein in a solution. In order to do so, egg white and ammonium sulfate were mixed on ice and then put into the centrifuge. After PBS was added, the amount of protein could then be determined. After that, 14 test tubes...

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Understanding the Functions of Proteins and Dna

Understanding the Functions of Proteins and DNA Ingrid Waldron, Biology Department, University of Pennsylvania, 2012 These key concepts and activities are suggested as part of an introductory unit on biological molecules (or as an introduction to a unit on molecular biology). The overarching goal is to help students understand that proteins and DNA are not just abstract concepts in biology textbooks but rather crucial components of our bodies that affect familiar functions and characteristics...

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Denaturing proteins

Discovered in 1838, proteins are recognized as a large number of superior organic compounds that make up living organisms and are essential for their functioning. In other words proteins are the building blocks of life. They do many tasks for the human body and other organisms, that could not be done individually. These macromolecules could function as structural proteins and form structures such as keratin in hair, teeth, bones, muscles, collagen in connective tissues, horns in...

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Isolation and Characterization of Proteins

are present in a protein, in this case gluten. Introduction: Proteins are large biological molecules that are made up of amino acids. They serve as building blocks that form organic structures such as tendons, muscle, and cartilage. Enzymes - biological catalysts that allow important chemical reactions to occur in our body - are also made up of proteins. Thus, proteins play a fundamental role in the processes of life. [1] Protein purification is basically isolating a protein from complex mixtures...

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Protein Structure and Function

Give an account of protein structure and function Protein structure 1 Proteins consist of amino acids joined together (in chains) 2 A protein is unique because of the sequence of amino acids 3 The amino acids are joined by strong peptide bonds 4 to produce the primary structure 5 Further (weak) hydrogen bonding between acids 6 produce the secondary and tertiary structures A maximum of 4 marks can be gained from this section. Protein function 7 Some proteins are enzymes + named example...

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Protein and Mutated Gene Sequence

have for protein synthesis? Explanation: The mRNA encodes the amino acid sequence of a protein. During the translation, ribosomal RNA combines with other proteins to form a ribosome which amino acids are transported to the ribosome. The combination of mRNA and tRNA converts the mRNA into the amino acid sequence of the protein. Did the two mutations result in a change in the final proteins? If so, describe the change. Response/ explanation: A change took place in the final proteins because...

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Protein Denaturation

DENATURATION OF PROTEINS Abstract The experiment was done to be able to understand how various denaturants such as HCl and NaOH affects proteins. It was observed that different denaturants act upon or denature protein differently. This was determined using the principle of viscometry. An Ostwald viscometer was used to measure the viscosity of the prepared native, blank, denatured native and blank with denaturant solutions. The time required for the said solutions to pass through the viscometer...

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Nef Protein in Hiv

accessory NEF protein in HIV infection Kanokporn Tangthamvanich Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Otago [Word count: 895] The role of the accessory NEF protein in HIV infection In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, there is one essential virulence protein, the Nef protein, which is identified as a negative factor due to it having a negative effect on viral replication (1). It performs critical functions in the host during the viral life cycle. The Nef protein is only...

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Importance of Peroxisomal Proteins in the Human Body

 Cell Bio Bites Topic: Peroxisomes The Importance of Peroxisomal Proteins in the Human Body By: Jeffrey Palumbo 20523300 For BIOL 130 Tutorial Section 116 Shirley Chan The Importance of Peroxisomal Proteins in the Human Body Peroxisomes are small organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells that contain a variety of enzymes and are responsible for an assortment of essential metabolic processes (Wanders, 2013). Generally, these processes include the β-oxidation of fatty...

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Denaturation of Proteins

Abstract This experiment aimed to study the effect of various denaturants on albumin and casein protein extracts through viscosity measurements. 5 mL samples of native and denatured protein solutions were prepared, using -mercaptoethanol, urea and SDS as denaturants for albumin, and NaOH, NaCL, HCL, -mercaptoethanol, urea and SDS for casein. 5 mL blank solutions for each denaturant used were also prepared. The viscosity of the solutions were determined using Ostwald viscometer. ________...

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Discovering Factors affecting Protein Denaturation

To examine three different ways of denaturing proteins. HypothesisIt was predicted that the physical characteristics of the egg white solution at room temperature would appear clear and normal like a raw egg white. This is because nothing would be done to the egg white. It was also predicted that when the egg white solution gets heated, the protein would denature if the temperature exceeds 65 °C. The protein would solidify, turn opaque, and turn white in colour. This would happen because the heat...

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Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation in Sports

Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation in Sports The popularity of increasing the “performance-enhancing” supplements, Protein and amino acids, has flourished among all athletes. This increase is attributed to the belief by many of the athletes that it provides endurance, strength and speed enhancement. Amino Acids (AA) enhanced physical feats, improved energy and recovery sooner from fatigue. The three vital Amino Acids which were given a high focal point among athletes are leucine, isoleucine...

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Protein Delivery Through Oral Route

A REPORT ON Protein/ Peptide Drug delivery through Oral route Submitted in fulfillment of the Study in Advanced Topic (BITS G513) By S. Lakshmi Anusha (2008HS08605H) BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, PILANI HYDERABAD CAMPUS 29th April, 2013. 1 A REPORT ON Protein/ Peptide Drug delivery through Oral route Submitted in fulfillment of the Study in Advanced Topic (BITS G513) By S. Lakshmi Anusha (2008HS08605H) UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF Dr. Punna Rao Ravi Assistant Professor...

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Protein Paper

Protein Monique Rowland Nutrition / 241 Instructor: AN-CHIAN CHEN October 4, 2013 Protein All proteins are molecules that are the boosters of living organisms and are part of each organ, tissue, and cell within the human body. The protein in consumed food turns into amino acid. The amino acid is used later replinish the proteins used. Proteins have two structures. the first and primary structure of protein is the sequence of the amino acid in the protein (Kim, 2005). ...

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Protein Purification

Introduction Protein purification is the series of processes to isolate a single type of protein from a complex mixture. This is vital to extract and characterize the protein of interest. However, before doing so, it is important to release the protein from the subcellular organelles. This step is also known as homogenization. This step can be done with the use of blender. As the solution was homogenized, it may undergo saltation or acidation to remove impurities such as calcium anions. Hexane...

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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid

Carbohydrates, Proteins, lipids, and nucleic Acid Lab Exercise 6 Date: 9/17/12 Bio 102-11 Purpose the purpose of this experiment was to perform test to detect the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Explain the importance of a positive and a negative control in biochemical test. Use biochemical test to identify an unknown compound. Background Most organic compounds in living organisms are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids they are called...

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Denaturing of proteins

 Denaturing of Proteins Research Paper Abstract: Introduction The experiments the objective is to determine, the possible measures of the denaturation process of several proteins by using a home based temperate The necessary applications of this experiment are to compile all the possible measures of the denaturation process in understandable units and explainable means. Other methods possible for research are by...

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Use of Biuret Reagent to Test for Proteins In Food

 “Use of Biuret Reagent to Test for Proteins In Food” Cindy Zhou Introduction Protein is a series of amino acids that are connected together by peptide bond. The bond is located between the end of previous amino acid, which is the carboxyl group, and the head of next amino acid, which is a amino group. The Biuret reagent is a solution of copper sulfate and potassium hydroxide. When peptide bond are presented, the copper (II) will interact with them (MadSci Network: General Biology)...

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Protein Folding

Protein Misfolding Brittany Mascarenhas (ID: 20471654) Corey Nixon Biol 130 Tuesday October 23, 2012 In an organism, almost every dynamic function relies on proteins. A protein's function is a direct result of their intricate folding, the simplest level of which is the sequence of amino acids. (Fitzpatrick et al, 2011). Each amino acid has a unique characteristic because of the physical and chemical properties in their side chains, which affects the function of a protein...

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Fish Phylogenetic Tree Based on Protein Size

Fish phylogenetic tree based on protein size Amanda Reed Lab partners: Lecia Redwine, Kyle Hatcher TA: Baneshwar Singh Biology 117, Section 25 Tuesday 10:30 AM Introduction       Although tree diagrams have been used since the days of Charles Darwin, biologists have only recently adopted the tree model of evolution to read and interpret phylogenies. One of the reasons for this is the confusion that often arises from using a tree model to describe a phylogeny (Baum, 2008a). Many people interpret...

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Protein Hydrolysis and Characterization

Protein Hydrolysis and Characterization Group 7 Niez, Robert Francis, *Orbin, Alfonso Ricardo* Parro, Athena Emmanuelle Peralta, Christian Department of Biological Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines • Abstract Hydrolyzed Protein is protein that has been hydrolyzed or broken down into its component amino acids. While there are many means of achieving this, two of the most common are prolonged boiling in a strong acid (acid-HVP) or strong base or using an enzyme such...

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Protein Essay

Protein Essay- Erin Keegan What are proteins? A polypeptide is a chain of monomers joined up to make a polymer. Proteins are organic polypeptides made up of a chain of amino acid residues- they’re residues because they lose a water molecule. The amino acids (monomers) join up by forming peptide bonds. When two amino acids join together, they become a dipeptide. This happens when the carboxyl group of an amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid link up through a condensation reaction...

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Introduction: Proteins are necklaces of amino acids – long chains molecules. Proteins are the basis of how biology get this done. As enzymes, they are the driving force behind all the biochemical reactions which make biology work. As structural elements, they are main constituents of our bones, muscles, hair, skin, and blood vessels. As antibodies, they recognize invading elements and allow the immune system to get rid of the unwanted invaders. For these reasons, scientists have sequenced the...

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Bacteria and Plasmid to Produce Red Fluorescent Proteins

Bacterial Transformation Bacteria and plasmid to produce Red Fluorescent Proteins Alejandra Lopez ...

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Protein Precipitation Methods

Abstract There are many methods employed to precipitate proteins out of solution. In this experiment we manipulated many physical and chemical variables in order to achieve purification of a protein via precipitation. In the first part of the experiment we purified the protein casein by modifying it’s pH. In the second part of the experiment we manipulated the ionic strength of albumin in egg whites, in a process called salting out. By manipulating these chemical properties we were able to...

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The Structure and Function Relationships of Proteins

Relationships of Proteins Proteins are a group of organic compounds whose molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur atoms. They are condensation polymers of amino acids that are joined by strong peptide bonds. There are 20 different types of amino acids available, and the different combinations of these amino acids give it different structures and specific functions to it. Below in this essay, will illustrate the how different structure of a protein is related to...

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Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids: Lab Experiments

Test Biuret Test Reagents CuSO4 sol'n, diluted NaOH Test for Intact proteins and protein hydrlysates (at least tripeptide, 2 peptide bonds Result Pink to violet blue color Ninhyrin Test 1,2,3-indanetrione monohydrate or triketohydintene hydrate, ethanol Alpha- amino group (usually a general test for amino acids) Xanthoproteic Test Conc. HNO3, conc. NaOH For W,F,Y (aromatic except for H) Blue to blue-violet Oxidative decarboxylation color & deamination...

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The Hair Follicle Stem Cell Niche and the Function of the Rac1 Protein Within the Niche.

The Hair Follicle Stem Cell Niche and the Function of the Rac1 protein within the niche. Abstract: An adult stem cell’s niche is responsible for the preservation of the stem cell’s undifferentiated state through either intrinsic or extrinsic expression of specific proteins (Scadden, 2006). Situated in the bulge of the hair follicle, hair follicle stem cells (HFSC) are quiescent in nature and are responsible for not only its self renewal but also in the production of rapidly proliferating cells...

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Investigation on Protein Denaturation

white. It is because the protein in egg white undergoes denaturation, the cross linkage(the hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and disulphride bonds) which maintain the protein shape destructed, so protein lose its tertiary conformation. This denaturing process is very important, because before protein can be used in digestion they must be unfolded. Part A: denaturation of egg white Aim: To examine the factors on the effect of denaturation of egg white. Principle: As protein denaturation can be cause...

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How Organelles Work Together to Make and Secrete the Protein Insulin

All cells have the same basic structure (see figure 1) however some cells are specialised to suit a specific purpose. An example of this is the pancreatic beta cells found in the islets of Langerhans. These cells are specialised to synthesise the protein insulin that is involved in the metabolism of glucose in the cells. (Layden, 2010) Figure 1 - Picture to show basic structure of a cell. (Farrabee, M J. 2007) But how is insulin made? The production of insulin starts in the nucleus which is...

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proteins and nucleic acids

PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS 28/11/13 Qn. Which two of the four macromolecules do you believe to be the most important for life? Give evidence to support your suggestion (include a full description of the macromolecules you describe both in terms of structure and function) Introduction All the four macromolecules=lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids= are essential for the functioning of an organism's body (Campbell, biology). They work hand in hand to help us survive. For example...

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How the Structure of Proteins Are Related to Their Function

How the structure of proteins are related to their functions Rachel Morris The basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids, the biuret reaction tests for protein. A solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a sample then a few drops of copper sulphate solution, if positive – the solution will turn mauve. There are 20 different amino acids and they can be joined in any order. Therefore there can be many different functions. A protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains (a polypeptide...

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Consequences of Protein Misfolding

 Topic: Protein Folding and Molecular Chaperones - What happens when proteins fold incorrectly? Consequences of Protein Misfolding Vina Ong 20554965 Section: 126 Ares Rao A protein is made of amino acids that supply cells with their formation and execute most of their activities. Proteins can easily be denatured and refolded which happens spontaneously as the denaturing solvent is added and removed, under the proper circumstances. (Alberts, 2014) Since they can be easily denatured...

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Protein Energy Malnutrition

PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRION Types include:[2] * Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition predominant) * Marasmus (deficiency in both calorie and protein nutrition) * Marasmic Kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency and marked calorie insufficiency signs present, sometimes referred to as the most severe form of malnutrition) Note that this may also be secondary to other conditions such as chronic renal disease[3] or cancer cachexia[4] in which protein energy wasting may occur. Protein-energy...

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Protein Deficiency Symptoms

Protein Deficiency Symptoms Protein deficiency symptoms are the first signs that your diet may be lacking in complete proteins. When your body isn't getting the nutrition it needs to function well, it gives you signals that something is wrong. Pay attention to these symptoms and seek medical advice if you experience them. Common Protein Deficiency Symptoms Even with a wide variety of protein sources available, some people experience protein deficiency symptoms due to a lack of protein intake...

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Chromatography for Protein Purification

B2 Chromatography for Protein Purification Name Matric No. Group : : : Date of Expt. : GRADE : A. Learning objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. Establish chromatographic assay to determine protein concentrations in a mixture. Appreciate the importance of resolution in protein chromatography. Understand the tension between purity and yield in protein chromatography. Understand the importance of mass balance closure in protein purification. B. Introduction I. Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography...

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Green Fluorescent Protein Lab

Title: Purification of Green Fluorescent Protein Introduction: Transformation is used to introduce a gene coding for a foreign protein into bacteria. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) is used to purify the foreign protein. Protein gel electrophoresis is used to check and analyze the pure protein. Research scientists use Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a master or tag to learn about the biology of individual cells and multicultural organisms. This lab introduces a rapid method...

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How Primary Structure Determines Protein Function

How Primary Structure Determines Protein Function Proteins are everywhere. As enzymes, they catalyse chemical reactions. There are many different types of proteins: carrier and channel proteins which transport substances, receptor proteins which are recognition site for antibodies and hormones, structural proteins which support cells and tissues, and hormones which transmit information. Proteins are big molecules with large molecular masses that are made up of many amino acids; they’re, essentially...

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Bradford Protein Assay

An Le Foundation Biology lab BRADFORD PROTEIN DISCUSSION ESSAY The appearance of blue color showed the present of protein in the BSA dilutions. The more diluted the solution was, the less blue it was. The R2 value of the standard curve of BSA dilution was obtained to be 0.9972, which is close to 1. The closer to 1 the R2 value was, the more accurate the linear portion was. The error percentage of each unknown was large: 25.9% for skim milk, 95% for soy sauce, and 64.7% for egg white. The vast...

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Western Blotting Technique Laboratory Analysis

Abstract This experiment followed an exact protocol from EDVOTEK® Kit #17. This kit was designed to use western blot analysis to detect proteins from Non-fat powdered milk. The experiment had to be run two times before the expected outcome was reached. However, after the second attempt, it was successful. The gel ran well, and the proteins from the gel were successfully transferred to the membrane provided in the kit. Introduction The name western blot was given to the technique by W. Neal...

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Biochemistry of Proteins; Isolation of Ovalbumin and Enumeration of Thiol Groups

Biochemistry of Proteins; Isolation of Ovalbumin and Enumeration of thiol groups Abstract Thiol groups are important to protein folding and forming disulphide bonds that are essential to protein structure. Determining the number of thiol groups in a protein is important in determining the tertiary structure of the protein. The ovalbumin is the experiment was purified from egg white using centrifugation and ammonium sulphate precipitation and then the thiol groups identified using DTNB and spectroscopy...

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Identifying Organic Compounds Lab Report

Purpose: To use indicators to test for the presence of organic compounds in certain substances. Hypothesis: Honey will contain sugars, egg white contains proteins, corn oil contains lipids, oats contains starches and proteins, gelatin contains sugars and proteins, potatoes contain starch, and apple juice contains lipids and sugars. Materials: 9 test tubes Test tube rack Test tube holder Grease pencil Hot plate 20 ml honey solution 20 ml egg white and water mixture 20...

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Isolation of Casein from Milk

widely among species. Factors causing these variances include: the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd. On average, cow milk contains 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Bovine milk normally contains 30-35 grams of protein per liter. Of which, 80% is arranged in casein micelles. Figure 1. Model...

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structure and function of plasma membrane in cells

together is referred to the fluid mosaic model. It is called fluid because the individual phospholipids can move relative to one another, making the membrane flexible so it can constantly change shapes. It is called mosaic as the different types of proteins are embed in the membrane in different shapes, sizes and patterns, so it resembles a mosaic. Phospholipids are important components to the structure of the plasma membrane. It forms a bilayer sheet, one layer of the phospholipids has its hydrophilic...

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Lesson 3 quiz

is to produce proteins. contain the cytoplasm. ~contain and replicate DNA. add sugars to proteins. 9. The function of ribosomes is to synthesize RNA. DNA. lipids. ~protein. 10. Which of the following structures maintains cell shape, anchors the organelles, and moves parts of the cell? Hydrogen bonds ~Cytoskeleton Cilia Golgi complex 11. One of the main structural components of plant cell walls is ~cellulose. glucose. mitochondria. protein. 12. The membranes...

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Bt Corn Issues in the Philippines

(GMO), where a specific Bt gene is inserted to produce a protein that protects the corn plant from feeding by Asiatic corn borers (ACB). This makes the corn plant naturally resistant to attack by ACB. The gene used is from the common soil bacteria Bacillus thurigiensis that makes its own insecticidal protein. The Bt protein controls insects by disrupting the insect's digestive system. Once inside the alkaline gut of the target insect, the Bt protein is activated and binds to specific receptors. This mid-gut...

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Bio Webquest

with positive and negative sides such as H2O. 2.     Compare macromolecules to Monomers; complete the chart below Example of a Macromolecule | Corresponding Monomer | polysaccharide |  monosaccharide |  lipids | glycerol, fatty acid | protein | Amino acids  | nucleic acid |  necleotides |  CARBOHYDRATES 1. List the three main groups of carbohydrates. The three main group of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides 2. Play the animation...

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mrs koch

¬¬¬¬¬ ENGINEERING STABLE PROT¬¬¬EINS Stable and soluble HIV spike proteins Appendix Abstract……………………………….................................................1 Introduction………………………………..........................................1 Structure and function of gp120 and gp41.…………………………2 Mutation 1……………………………….............................................5 Mutation...

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Effect of temperature and SDS concentration on cell membranes of beet root cell

interspersed with protein molecules. Most membranes also contain very small amounts of carbohydrates that are usually associated with the phospholipids or proteins. (Danyk, 2013/14) Phospholipids in the membrane are composed of a phosphate group, glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acid chains. They are amphipathic; each has a hydrophobic region and a hydrophobic region. The nonpolar lipid tails are hydrophobic and the polar phosphate and glycerol group are hydrophilic. (Danyk, 2013/14) Protein molecules are...

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Metabolism and Protein A Protein

Protein SCI/241 Protein A protein are organic compounds that made up of amino acids and are the building blocks of the cells in the body. Every cell in the body requires proteins to grow and repair themselves so these proteins are necessary for a healthy body and survival. Having so much protein can hurt your body so when you consume so much can get you sick and the right size of protein can keep you from getting sick. They’re five types of protein in everything that we eat. The largest class...

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