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Written Communication: Group Report
Topics: Communication / Pages: 43 (11160 words) / Published: Aug 25th, 2014

GROUP REPORT ON
Written Communication

June 6, 2014 Mr. Tarik Hossain
Assistant professor, Faculty of Business Administration
Department of AIS
Comilla University

Subject: Submission of Report on “Written Communication”.

Dear Sir,

We are pleased to attach here with a copy of the report on “Written Communication”.

This report is a summary of our findings from the tasks we have been given to complete. We completed the report on schedule and tried to meet our entire proposed objective within the allotted schedule.

Finally, we are truly grateful to you for giving us this nice opportunity to work on this report, which we have considered as a great chance for us to develop our communication skills.

Thank you.

Yours Sincerely,
F. M. Saddam Hossen Id-20140606010
Sd…………………………..
Khokan Chandra Sutradhar Id-20140606005
Sd…………………………..

Acknowledgement

By doing a lot of analysis the most benevolent merciful, we have been successfully to complete this report on “Written Communication”. Then we are grateful to our adorable parents who had bring us in this world and given the opportunity to study and our parents like course instructor Tarik Hossain sir who have given better direction to complete this report.

We do not claim that this report is original in presentation. We have collected materials from different source.

We greatly acknowledge all suggestions received to enhance further the value of this project. The suggestion has been incorporated whenever possible.

We are trying to give our best efforts not withstanding small errors do creep into the project. We are ever great full to our followers for drawing our attention to such, so that they may be squashed.

We are extremely grateful to our honorable teacher, Tarik Hossain who constantly took keen interest in boosting our morale and inspire of his busy schedule.

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to many of our friends for their occasional helps and encouragements in different stages of writing the manuscript to mention few.

While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, it cannot be claimed that the assignment is absolutely error-free. Incase of any confusion or doubt on any aspects of this report, we are may be contracted in any time.

Executive Summary

We were assigned to prepare a report on written communication. We have prepared our report with our best effort.
In this report, we have included written communication overall chapter. The focus point of the report is Finding and Analysis. We discuss about firstly fundamental of business writing and then we discuss about basic pattern of business massage. We also discuss about pattern variation in collection and strategic of job search and its demo letter.
Thus, in our report, we discuss about the overall written communication activity like Adaption and the selection of words, Construction of clear sentence and paragraph, writing for effect, Memorandums and E-mail – The Collection series, The nature of memorandum, Direct memorandums, Indirect (Bad News) Memorandums, The growth and nature of E-mail construction of E-mail Massage etc.

We try to give our best effort to prepare this report and try to give brief analysis and recommendation. But due to short time limitation we did not able to include enough information about the topic.

Chapter-1
Introduction
1.1 Background of topic:
Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or organization – with the objective of making sale. In business communication, message is conveyed through various channels of communication including internet, print (publications), radio, television, outdoor, and word of mouth. There are many types of communication written communication one of them.
Written communication is basically any form of interactive communication that uses written words to convey a message. Some of the forms of written communication that are commonly used include memos, manuals, electronic mail, job description and bulletins among many others. Written communication is one of the main forms of communication, the other being spoken or oral communication. We try to discuss all about written communication.
1.2 Objectives:
We can divide the report objectives in two areas. These are given below-
Broad Objectives:
Find out the present situation of Written Communication.
To understanding and learning about written communication.
Specific Objectives:
To find out the merit and demerits of written communication. To analyze the different types of written communication.
To know about written communication
1.3 Methodology of the Report:
This report has been prepared on the basis of different types of communication. In order to make the study more meaningful and presentable; two sources of data are used:
Collection of Data
This report is report on the basis of primary and secondary data and most of the data has been collected from the secondary sources.
Primary sources of information:
Face to face conversation with faculty and his lecture.
Face to face conversation with some corporate service holder and student of business communication section of AIS 6th Batch.
Personal experience is used to collect data.
Secondary sources of information:
Some website by Google search.
Essential of Business Communication by Rajendra Pal.
1.4 Limitations of the Report:

This report is an overall view of written communication analysis. But there are some limitations for preparing this report.
Firstly, the topic does not have enough data, that’s why we did not able to include much information.

Secondly, when we were doing my report, we had lots of quiz and term paper work that’s why we could not get all required data. With all of these limitations, we tried my best to make this report as best as possible. So readers are requested to consider these limitations while reading and justifying any part of my study.
Some restraint at the time of preparing the report are appended below
The insufficiency of information is main constraint of the study.
The corporate service holder people are busy to provide us time for interview.
Inexperience and time limitation were the constraints of the study.
Lack of knowledge about doing report.

Chapter -2 Findings and Analysis
2.1 Written communication and its historical development:
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study.
The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions":
1. Written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone; hence written communication was not yet mobile.
2. The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. with common alphabets. Communication became mobile.
3. The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared) and other electronic signals.
Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.
Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, questions and answers, paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clarified by planning follow-up talks on critical written communication as part of the every-day way of doing business. A few minutes spent talking in the present will save valuable time later by avoiding misunderstandings in advance. A frequent method for this purpose is reiterating what one heard in one 's own words and asking the other person if that really was what was meant.
2.1.1 Advantages of written communication
One of the biggest advantages of written communication is the fact that it allows for permanent records, which is something other means of communication such as oral communication do not have.
Written communication strengthens and clarifies a verbal message.
Because it allows for permanent records, it is good for making references.
Written communication can be very useful as a defense during legal issues.
Written communication is more reliable than oral communication. A written and signed document carries more weight and validity than spoken words.
Written communication is more precise than other means of communication.
Written communication, because of its form can be stored for analysis to be made in order for one to get a better understanding of the message it contains.
The last but not least advantage of written communication is the fact that it can be easily disseminated to recipients that are in different locations.
2.1.2 Disadvantages of written communication
Below are some of the disadvantages associated with the written communication:
Unlike other forms of communication, written communication can take a considerable amount of time to produce.
Written communication is sometimes limited to people who have sight. Blind people or the visually impaired, for instance cannot receive certain types of written communication. For example, a blind man cannot receive information from a poster or notice.
Written communications are also not flexible. It is a very rigid means of communication.
With written communication feedback is not immediate. Feedback is a very important thing in every organization, which is why a delay in receiving feedback can result in certain unfavorable issues such as slowing down the decision making process.
Poor writing skills can hamper the effectiveness of the written communication. If the writer cannot write effectively then there is a high likelihood that a lot of people are going to misunderstand the message being sent. This can be a very negative thing for any organization and can come with a great deal of severe ramifications.
Another disadvantage of the written communication is that it is time consuming and can be very expensive to produce and to disseminate.
Some illiterates or people who cannot read and write very well will have it pretty difficult getting and understanding the information or message contained within a written means of communication.
2.2 The Basic Need of Adaptation
The ability to write clearly depends not on our audience itself, but on how much we know about our audience. For writing to be clear, it must adapt to the reader. By adaptation we mean fitting the message to the specific reader. Readers even in the same country do not all have the same vocabulary, the same knowledge of the subject or the same mentality because of cultural differences this problem becomes more serious in cross-cultural communications. Thus, to communicate clearly you should first know the person with whom you are communicating. You should be aware of his or her cultural background arid take care to form your message to fit that reader’s mind.
(1) Identify the Audience.
When several people will be receiving your message, try to identify those who are most important to your purpose. Ordinarily, those with the highest organizational status are the key people, but occasionally a person in a relatively low position may have influence in one or two particular areas. (2) Determine the Size and Composition of the Audience.
Large audiences behave differently from small ones and require different communication techniques. If you were writing a report for wide distribution, you might choose a more formal style, organization, and format than you would if the report were directed to only three or four people in your department. The larger the audience, the more diverse their backgrounds and interests are likely to be. People with different education, status, and attitudes are likely to react differently to the same message, so you look for the common denominators that tie the members of the audience together. At the same time you want to respond to the particular concerns of individuals.
(3) Analyze the Audience’s Reaction.
Your approach to organizing your message depends on your audience’s probable reaction. If you expect a favorable response with very little criticism or debate, you can be straightforward about stating your conclusions and recommendations. On the other hand, when you face a skeptical audience, you may have to introduce your conclusions and recommendations more gradually and provide more proof.
(4) Determine the Audience’s Level of Understanding.
If you and your audience share the same general background, you can assume they will understand your material without any difficulty. If not, you will have to decide how much you need to educate them. In general, you are better off explaining too much rather than too little, particularly if you are subtle about it. If your audience is from another culture, your efforts will be more involved.
(5) Analyze the Audience’s Needs.
If you are unknown to your audience, you will have to earn their confidence before you can win them to your point of view. The initial portion of your message will be devoted to gaining credibility. Your status relative to your audience also affects the style and tone of your presentation. You address your peers one way and your boss another. You use still another tone when communicating with employees of lower status and your style with co-workers differs markedly from your style with customers and suppliers.
(6) Satisfy Your Audience’s Information Need.
The key to effective communication is determining your reader’s needs and then responding to them. Ask yourself the following five questions to help you satisfy the audience’s information needs:
—What does the audience want to know?
—What does the audience need to know?
—Have I provided all desired and necessary information?
—Is the information accurate?
—Have I emphasized the information of greatest interest to the audience?
(7) Be sure about the Reader’s Need.
In many cases the audience’s information needs are readily apparent. When dealing with a vague request, pin it down. One good approach is to restate the request in more specific terms to help get the requester to define his or her needs more precisely. Once you’ve defined your audience’s information needs, be certain to satisfy those needs completely. Use the journalistic approach to check whether your message answers who, what, when, where, why, and how to test the thoroughness of your message.
(8) Be Accurate in Your Message.
There is no point in answering all your audience’s questions if the answers are wrong. In business you have a special duty to check things before making a written commitment, especially if you are writing to someone who is outside the company. Your organization is legally bound by any promise you make, so make sure your company is able to follow through. Be sure that the information you provide is accurate and the commitments you make can be kept.
(9) Make Important Points Stand Out.
When deciding how to respond to your audience’s information needs, remember that some points will be of greater interest and importance than others. Pick out the points that will have the most impact on your audience and emphasize them. Remember that your main goal as a business communicator is to tell your audience what they need to know.
(10) Satisfy Your Audience’s Motivational Needs:
Some types of messages, particularly persuasive messages and bad news, are intended to motivate audience members to change their beliefs or behavior. The problem is that people resist ideas that conflict with their existing beliefs and practices. To overcome resistance, arrange your message so that the information will be as acceptable as possible. One approach is to use rational arguments presented in an objective tone. Another approach is to support your position with information or statistics.
(11) Appeal to the Audience’s Emotional Need.
Although appealing to reason is often the best approach, you might try convincing your audience by appealing to emotion. Your credibility with an audience depends on their perception of your competence and integrity. People arc more likely to believe you if they feel comfortable with you: if you have similar backgrounds or friends in common, if you wear the same style of clothes, enjoy the same sports and aspire after the same goals. To establish rapport, you need to emphasize these common denominators. Remember that getting your message across depends as much on your audience’s receptivity as it does on your arguments. Be sure to address motivational needs before you introduce controversial material.
(12) Satisfy Your Audience’s Practical Needs.
Many in your audience will review your message under difficult circumstances with many interruptions, and they are likely to give it a low priority. So make your message as convenient as possible for your audience. Be brief. Generally speaking, a 5-minute talk is easier to follow than a 30-minute presentation; a two-paragraph letter is more manageable than one that’s two pages long and a two-page memo is more likely to be read than a ten-page report.
(13) Be Brief.
If your written message has to be long, make it easy for readers to follow so that they can pick it up and put it down several times without losing the thread of what you are saying.
2.2.2 Importance of Adaptation
As choosing right words is basic of clear communication, basis of task of arranging those words into clear sentences and the sentences into clear sentences and the sentences into clear paragraphs.
Constructing such clear sentences and paragraphs involves adaptation to the minds of the intended readers.
Writing should fit the readers in words, sentences and paragraphs.
This procedure involves the use of simpler sentences to reach with the lower communication abilities and people not knowledgeable about the subject.
We should use complex sentences with more verbal, knowledgeable people.
The writing should not tax the comprehension skills of the readers.
Such writing requires managing the emphasis in the sentences, making each sentence express a main idea, and ordering the sentences elements according the grammar.
2.3 Suggestions for Selecting Words
A major part of adaptation is selecting the right words. These are the words that communicate best that have correct and clear meanings in reader’s mind. Selecting the right words depends on your ability to use language, your knowledge of the reader and your good judgment. Here are some suggestions to help you select such words.
(1) Use Short and Familiar Words.
Short words tend to be familiar words. Familiar words are everyday words—with sharp and clear meanings in mind. Using familiar words means using the language that most of the native speakers use in everyday conversation. You should avoid the stiff, more difficult words that do not communicate so precisely and so quickly. The suggestion to use short and familiar words does not rule out some use of more difficult words. You should use them whenever their meanings fit your purpose best and your readers understand them. A good suggestion is to use the simplest words that carry the meaning without offending the reader’s intelligence. The best suggestion is to write the words you would use in face-to-face communication with your readers.
(2) Use Concrete Language.
Good business communication is marked by words that form sharp and clear meanings in the mind. These are concrete words. Concrete is the opposite of abstract. Abstract words are vague. In contrast, concrete words stand for things the reader can see, feel, taste or smell. Abstract nouns, on the other hand, cover broad meanings, concepts, ideas, and the like. Their meanings are general. Exact or specific wordings are concrete; vague and general wordings are abstract.
(3) Use Active Voice.
Active voice produces stronger, livelier writing. It emphasizes the action, and it usually saves words. The suggestion that active voice be preferred does not mean that passive voice is always incorrect or that you should never use it. Passive voice can be correct, and it has a place. The problem is that many writers tend to overuse it, especially in report writing. Your decision on whether to use active or passive voice is not simply a matter of personal choice. Sometimes passive voice is preferable. Passive is better when the doer of the action is not important, when the performer is not known or when the writer prefers not to name the performer.
(4) Select Words for Precise Meanings.
Obviously, writing requires some knowledge of language. In fact, the greater your knowledge of the English language, the better you are likely to write in English. If you want to be a good English writer, you will need to study English words carefully. You will need to learn their precise meanings, especially the shades of difference in the meanings of similar words.
(5) Avoid Sexist Words.
Many words in English suggest male dominance. Avoid using them. Perhaps the most troublesome sexist words are the masculine pronouns (he, his, him) when they are used to refer to both sexes. You can avoid doing this by:
Rewording the sentence
Making the reference plural by substituting neutral expressions.
2.4. CONSTRUCTION OF CLEAR SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS
Using Shorter Sentences (Emphasis on short Sentence)
We should adapt our sentences to the readers for which we need to arrange the carefully-selected words into shorter sentences with clear meanings.
Clear sentences result from orderly thinking because constructing clear sentences is a product of the thinking mind.
Clear sentences have clear qualities in them and they communicate better because of mind limitations.
Length is the most important quality where long sentences are hard to read and result in less communication.
So we need to keep short sentences for readability.
Short means about 16-18 words for middle readers, who have average readability. And for more advanced readers, they can be made longer.
In the nutshell, the length of the sentences should be kept with the reader’s readability level.

CONSTRUCTION OF CLEAR SENTENCES AND PARAGRAPHS

Cluttering phrases Substitute
Along the lines of like
At the present time now
For the reason that for
For the purpose of because, since
In accordance with by
In the meantime meanwhile
In the near future soon
In the neighborhood of about, around
In very few cases seldom
On the basis of by
On the occasion of on
With regard to, with reference with about
With a view to to
‘in spite of the fact that they received help, they failed to exceed the quota”=even thought, they received help, they failed to exceed the quota.
2.5. Letter of Inquiry
April 1, 2008
Mr. Gangadhar Khare
CEO
Community Help Foundation
Dr. D N Road, Fort,
Mumbai, Maharashtra, IINDIA
Re: Letter of Inquiry
Dear Mr. Godbole,
Thank you for our recent meeting at the Community-Based Organization Conference where you were kind enough to visit with our staff and take the time to learn about our mission and current projects. We thoroughly enjoyed your visit with us, and sincerely appreciate your thoughtful attention to Neighborhood Improvement Association, Inc. (NIA)
Your interest in NIA is a significant acknowledgment of our successful track record of delivering superior community improvement projects for nearly 15 years.
We are aware that the Community Help Foundation distributes a number of grants for community improvement and development purposes. We wish to apply for one of the Foundation 's grants.
NIA has enjoyed a significant growth within the last ten years. Last year, NIA launched five new programs, including a community day care center, computer training center, substance abuse program, and an alternative learning program for high school drop-outs. We delivered a total of Rs.15 million in community improvement projects in one year alone; an outstanding record of achievement. Our staff has doubled in an effort to effectively administer our new programs as well as keep pace with our organization 's growing administrative responsibilities.
I am pleased to write to you about a project that I believe will be of interest to the Foundation. The NIA is seeking Rs.550, 000 over three years to expand its very successful Tech Ed (Technical Education) program to provide aggressive, hands-on computer training and alternative education programs in our inner-city neighborhoods.
Tech Ed is a highly effective five-year-old academic enrichment program for inner-city junior high and high school students. Formed through a partnership between NIA, the local college and the city 's school district, the program currently has a total enrollment of 500 students, and is funded by the school district and matching AICTE funds which are administered by the city.
We critically need funds to launch this sorely needed computer training program, fund the equipment, software, and the resources of two teachers to oversee and assist the volunteer student educators. These equipment and support resources will constructively assist the 2,500 undereducated minority residents to be served by our new community service program. The ethnic composition is approximately 49% Hindu, 39% Muslim, 9% Christian, and 2% other.

NIA has already raised an initial investment of more than Rs.50, 000 in absolutely necessary computer equipment toward a computer systems, training and services budget of more than Rs.1 million. We have worked hard to bridge the gap and anticipate receiving grants and donations totaling Rs.300, 000 from private sector sources, banks, foundations and private donors.
Despite our general fundraising efforts, our program budget is far from balanced. Cuts in government financing continue, with more expected, especially those affecting our clients with incomes below poverty level.
The challenge at this stage is to seize the opportunity, to take the risk, to realize an innovative, new, rewarding and productive future. With the strength which has made NIA and the Tech Ed program what it is today, the choice is an easy one -- help our community meet the challenges of the 21st Century.
Thank you for your support and assistance to NIA, and the community residents it serves. We look forward to your consideration of our request and the opportunity to submit a formal proposal for your review. We will be pleased to submit additional information at your request. Please do not hesitate to contact me at (telephone number).
Sincerely,
Mr. Gangadhar Khare
Executive Director

2.6. General favorable Responses:

2.7. Personnel Evaluation
Personnel evaluation has proven to be one of the most important needs of many companies. This needed by starting at the recruitment process, where we can provide our Clients with a comprehensive profile of individual candidates, including a multidimensional profiling of personality and aptitude characteristics.

The organization has upgraded their human resources consultancy and recruitment services with the acquisition of a new psychological tests battery, licensed and standardized for the Romanian population.
This is an acquisition that will greatly assist and support our clients by significantly strengthening the quality of the results of each of our projects, and thereby ensures that each client achieves his objectives.
This battery can be easily adapted to all HR services and increases the data accuracy level of all your projects:
Recruitment
Personnel evaluation
Training
Career management
The test “A” is a multi-purpose, total person employee assessment used for pre-employment screening, selection, development, training, managing, and succession planning. This employee assessment measures how well an individual fits specific jobs in your organization, and the results can be used during the training or succession planning stages. The test is customizable, and peak job performance models can be developed by company, position, manager or geography. The test is used as a pre-hire screening tool to find the best-matched candidate for a particular job.
The test “B” is a leadership assessment used primarily to evaluate the leadership skills and effectiveness of your managers and leaders. This leadership development survey compiles a feedback system from direct reports, peers, supervisors, and even customers, with a personalized program for developing specific leadership skills based on that feedback. The reports explain how to improve training, management techniques, and communication for greater success.
The test is a 360-degree leadership assessment used to help managers identify and prioritize their own development opportunities and leadership skills. It is also used to surface management issues that could lead to low employee productivity, morale, satisfaction, and turnover.
The test “C” is a manager assessment test which measures critical workplace compatibility factors between managers (executive, director, supervisor, team leader, etc.) and their employee(s) to determine managerial fit. Understanding the dynamics of the supervisor-subordinate relationship helps the manager work more effectively with each employee by recognizing where their perspectives are similar and where they differ. With this increased understanding, managers can easily identify areas they need to develop, go through appropriate manager training, and strive towards becoming a competent manager.
The test manager assessment is used to provide insight into specific managerial compatibility between managers and their direct reports. It also provides specific steps to increase manager and employee productivity to endorse better workplace compatibility.
This battery will help us capture a more realistic image of candidates, employees, professions and organizations. What we offer is not only top quality results, but also a comprehensive consultancy process that will meet the goals and objectives that you have set for your organization. We will support you as you make your decisions, from the definition of your needs and the establishment of the factual situation, through to and including the selection of optimal solutions and the implementation of results. Our expertise and problem solving abilities will ensure your satisfaction and make sure that you are on top.
2.8. Adjustment Letter
Adjustment letter is a reply letter to the buyer’s complaint or claim. In other words, when seller or transportation authority writes letter in response to the complaint or claim letter of the buyer, it is known as adjustment letter. This letter informs the customer either acceptance or rejection of their complaints and claims. Acceptance of the claims may take different forms such as simply regretting for the mistakes, or making correction to the mistakes through payment of compensation. Reply to complaint letter plays a vital role in enhancing the goodwill of a company and maintaining relationships with the customers

Acknowledging the claim letter: At the beginning of the adjustment letter, seller should be acknowledge the claim letter of the customers and thank the customer for pointing out the mistakes.
Regretting for mistakes: Reply letter should regret for the mistakes and inconvenience of the seller sincerely. If the seller is definitely at fault, he can apologize by saying,” I am sorry”, “We apologize” etc.
Immediate reply: After receiving the complaint from the buyer, the seller should give its reply immediately. Delay in reply may create further arrogance.
Granting immediate promise: If the customer demanded for something specific like a refund or replacement, the seller should grant the promise immediately.
Assuring preventive measures: After receiving the claim from the customers, preventive measures taken by seller should be indicated. Seller must also assure the customer that he will not face any such inconvenience in future.
Offering further cooperation: In order to promote goodwill of the company and sustain relationship with customers, the seller should offer further cooperation and assurance of satisfaction.
Convincing customer: If the claim of the customer is unfair, unreasonable and unjust, the seller should not react violently. Rather, he should convince the buyer to consider the matter from the seller’s angle.
Courteous and friendly language: The language of be courteous and friendly. Such language will cool down the anger of the buyer.
Example: A customer wrote to Daniel Hudson, the owner of Apple Tree Fine Books, complaining that the book he received is not the one he ordered and requesting that Mr. Hudson correct the mistake. In response, Mr. Hudson has written an adjustment letter.
Apple Tree Fine Books
4128 East 15th Street
Lanning, NY 10305 www.appletreebooks.com 718-237-8965

May 9, 2014
Andrew Fisher
358 Fox Run Avenue
Holly Springs, MS 38635

Dear Mr. Fisher:
I understand that your order from our online bookstore on July 28, 2003, was incorrectly filled. Thank you for bringing the problem to the attention of our store.
I received your returned copy of the book and am trying to locate a first edition copy to fill your order. I will have it sent when it is located. If you do not receive it within 14 business days, let me know.
Thanks for doing business with our store. We hope you will continue doing business with us in the future.
Apple Tree Fine Books strives to provide customer service and fine books. If you have any other questions, please contact the store at the number listed above.

Sincerely,
Daniel Hudson, Owner

2.9. Grants
Grants are non-repayable funds disbursed by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual. In order to receive a grant, some form of "Grant Writing" often referred to as either a proposal or an application is usually required.
Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of compliance and reporting. The grant writing process involves an applicant submitting a proposal (or submission) to a potential funder, either on the applicant 's own initiative or in response to a Request for proposal from the funder. Other grants can be given to individuals, such as victims of natural disasters or individuals who seek to open a small business. Sometimes grant makers require grant seekers to have some form of tax-exempt status, be a registered nonprofit organization or a local government.
2.10. Order Acknowledgment
An Order Acknowledgment is a confirmation from Inland that we have received and processed your order. It contains all information regarding your order, including the envelope size, special specs, quantity ordered, due date, price per thousand ($/m), and the name of the customer service rep who is handling this order for you. You should receive your Order Acknowledgment within 24 hours of submitting your order. If you do not receive it, please call us. Also, please call us if there is any wrong information regarding your order.
Please see the below for a structure of an Order Acknowledgement:

2.11. Claims
When affected buyer writes a letter to the seller raising complaints and demanding compensation, it is known as clam letter. Generally, a losing buyer writes claim letters to the seller. However, sometimes the buyer writes the letter to the transportation authority if any damage is caused by their negligence. Again, seller or transportation authority may also write claim letter to the buyer claiming their demand.
According to Himstreet and Baty, “A claim letter is a request for adjustment. When writes ask for something to which they think they are entitled refund, replacement, exchange, payment for damages and so on the letter is called a claim letter.” Effective complaints letters (and any other way of complaining) should be: concise authoritative factual constructive friendly Good complaints letters with the above features tend to produce better outcomes:
Concise letters can be understood quickly.
Authoritative letters - letters that are well written and professionally presented - have more credibility and are taken more seriously. Factual letters enable the reader to see immediately the relevant details, dates, requirements, etc., and to justify action to resolve the complaint.
Constructive letters - with positive statements, suggesting positive actions - encourage action and quicker decisions.
Friendly letters - with a considerate, cooperative and complimentary tone - are prioritized because the reader responds positively to the writer and wants to help.

2.12. Complaints letter example - faulty product

Company Name (Sender)
Address: ……………………………………
Telephone No: …………………

Date: ………………
Company Name (Receiver)
Address: ……………………………………
Telephone No: …………………
Faulty (xyz) product

Dear Sirs
I 'm afraid that the enclosed (xyz) product doesn 't work. It is the third one I 've had to return this month (see attached correspondence).

I bought it from ABC stores at Newtown, Big County on (date).

I was careful to follow the instructions for use, honestly.

Other than the three I 've had to return recently, I 've always found your products to be excellent.

I 'd be grateful if you could send a replacement and refund my postage (state amount).
I really appreciate your help.

Yours faithfully
Signature
J. Smith

2.13. Order Letter
A letter of order is a document that confirms the details of a purchase of goods or services from one party to another. It usually includes more information about what you are ordering, like quantity, model number, or color, the payment terms, and the matter in which the products are to be shipped. When the recipient receives this letter, they will process the order and send the merchandise.
An Order Letter is the one that is written by the person/company placing the request of purchase from another company. This letter comes into action only when a detailed study of the desired product has been done in the market and based on promised service, quality and price of the product, a decision for a purchase has been made.
An Order Letter should be drafted very carefully as it needs to pen down all the terms and conditions of the purchase for the benefit of both involved parties. It should have details such as product specifications, quantities, price agreed upon, delivery date, late delivery clauses, etc. It should be addressed to the person responsible for the execution of the order with a copy to the head of department. Since it is totally an official letter it should be typed.
2.13.1 Considerable factors for drafting order letter:
Following factors should be considered in drafting an order letter.
1. Detailed description of the goods.
2. Mention the delivery time.
3. Provide specifications of the goods regarding size, color, style, quality etc.
4. Shipment forwarding directions i.e. the root of the transportation.
5. Mode of payment.
6. Mention about the discount factor.
7. Formal request for timely deliver

Seven Siblings Limited
17 Sweet Road, West Bandung.
Tel: 022-8765432

Purchase Order
Date: May 9, 2014
Toko Englet
11 Main Street
San Fransisco, USA
ZIP CODE 91234
Attention: Miss Kim Jackson

Dear Miss Jackson :

Please accept this purchase order for the following :
No.
Product
Quantity
Unit Price
Total
1 Single Brush Polisher Colombia 400 4 $ 3,000 $ 12,000 2 Extractor SX 144 4 $ 2,000 $ 8,000

Total $ 20,000

We require shipment by May 17, 2014 to:

PT Pama
No. 1 Jl. Cileungsi, Bogor, Indonesia
Post Code 40156
Please refer to this order as "purchase order # SS01234. Should you need more information, please contact me at 62-22-756756 at your earliest convenience or email me at siblings@seven.com.

Sincerely,
Dede Prana
Purchasing Manage

2.14. Indirectness in Bad- News Message
In business writing, a letter, memo, or email that conveys negative or unpleasant information--information that is likely to disappoint, upset, or even anger a reader. Bad-news messages include rejections (in response to job applications, promotion requests, and the like), negative evaluations, and announcements of policy changes that don 't benefit the reader.
2.15. Situation Requiring Indirectness The indirect order is especially effective when you must say no or convey other disappointing news. The main reason for this approach is that negative messages are received more positively when an explanation precedes them. An explanation may even convince the reader that the writer’s position is correct. In addition, an explanation cushions the shock of bad news. Not cushioning the shock makes the message unnecessarily harsh, and harshness destroys goodwill. You may want to use directness in some bad-news situations. If, for example, you think that your negative answer will be accepted routinely, you might choose directness. For ex-ample, in many buyer–seller relationships in business, both parties expect backorders and order errors to occur now and then. Thus messages reporting this negative information are considered routine and are written in direct order. You also might choose directness if you know your reader well and feel that he or she will appreciate frankness. And you might choose directness anytime you are not concerned about goodwill. But such instances are not the rule. Usually you would be wise to use indirectness in refusals. As in the preceding chapter, we first describe a general plan. Then we adapt this plan to specific business situations—four in this case. First is the refusal of a request. We cover it in detail. Next we cover the refusal of a request for adjustment and refusals of credit. Since these last two situations are similar to the first one, we cover them briefly. The focus here is on special considerations involving each type. Finally, we cover negative announcements, which are a form of bad-news messages with unique characteristics.
2.17. Adjustment refusal
Adjustment refusal letters are a way that many businesses utilize to communicate unhappy news or decisions to their clients or customers. In order for these letters to work most effectively, it is important to always remember that this type of letter should come across as diplomatic and professional, especially since its very arrival might set off feelings of anger and resentment from the intended recipient. Also, an adjustment refusal letter should always include all of the reasons behind the company 's decision for the refusal, and include what it is exactly that the company is refusing. If the sender happens to have evidence to support their position for the refusal, it is always best to make sure to include that evidence in the adjustment refusal letter. It is much harder to oppose a refusal when their is supporting evidence to back up the decision. Although it is very often inevitable that a company use an adjustment refusal letter in the normal course of business, the most important factor to consider is how to essentially render the refusal without alienating the customer or client forever. To that end, companies need to look into ways to effectively offset a bad reaction from the recipient of the letter. A good way to keep the customer is to offer alternate solutions to the problem. This might constitute a discount is services elsewhere or a compromise that benefits both the company and the client. Many times, a flat-out refusal with no alternatives or concessions can kill an otherwise lucrative business arrangement between the two parties. The most important thing to remember is that the letter needs to come across as courteous and respectful of the recipient 's request, and should also wish the recipient success in the future. This leaves the situation in a more agreeable light and might just save the relationship and encourage future business dealings.
2.18. Refused Request
The refusal of a request is definitely bad news. Your reader has asked for something and you must say no. Your primary goal, of course, is to present this bad news. You could do this easily with a direct refusal. But as a courteous and caring businessperson, you have the secondary goal of maintaining goodwill. To achieve this second goal, you must convince your reader that the refusal is fair and reasonable.
2.19. General Plan to Refused Requests:
Adapting the preceding analysis to the general plan, we arrive at the following outline for the refused request:
Begin with words that indicate a response to the request, are neutral as to the answer, and set up the strategy.
Present your justification or explanation, using positive language and you-viewpoint.
Refuse clearly and positively, including a counterproposal or compromise when appropriate.
End with an adapted goodwill comment
2.20. Refused Request Message (Refusing a Request for Examples):
Tact and strategy mark this refusal in which an office manager turns down a textbook author’s request. The author has asked for model email messages that can be used as examples in a communication guidebook. The office manager reasons that complying with this request would take more time than he is willing or able to give.
Dr. Kesten,
Your Communication Guidebook should be a really practical tool for the business executive. The practical value of the book, as I see it, depends largely on the quality of its illustrations. Your book demands illustrations that meet all the criteria of good writing. But getting the quality of illustrations you need will require careful checking by someone who knows good writing, and going through the thousands of messages in our records will take considerable time and skill. For these reasons, may I propose that, instead of our trying to go through the files, we make them open to you and your staff? We would be happy to provide working space for you and do anything we could to help your search. If you wish to use our files in this way, please let us know.
Please let us know, also, if we can help you further. We look forward to seeing your book. Raphael E. Pattillo, Office Manager
Guardian Insurance Company
Phone: 716.773.4422
Fax: 716.773.4416 email:Raphael_Pattillo@guardianins.com 2.21. Adjustment refusals
Adjustment refusals are a special type of refused request. Your reader has made a claim asking for a remedy. Usually you grant claims. Most are legitimate, and you want to correct any error for which you are responsible. But such is not the case here. The facts do not justify correction.
When we apply these special considerations to the general plan, we come up with the following specific plan for adjustment refusals:
Begin with words that are on subject, are neutral as to the decision, and set up your strategy. Present the strategy that explains or justifies, being factual and positive.
Refuse clearly and positively, perhaps including a counterproposal.
End with off-subject, positive, forward-looking, friendly words.
2.22. Credit Refusal
Messages that refuse credit are more negative than most refusals. The very nature of credit makes them so. Credit is tied to personal characteristics, such as industrious-ness, stability, and trustworthiness. So, unless skillfully handled, a credit refusal can be viewed as a personal insult. For the most positive results, such a refusal requires the indirect order and a strategy that demonstrates careful courtesy.
Some will argue that you need not be concerned about the reader’s reactions in this situation. Since you are turning down the reader’s business, why spend time trying to be tactful? Why not just say no quickly and let it go at that? If you will study the situation, the answer will become obvious.
In the first place, being kind to people is personally pleasing to all of us. At least, it should be. The rewards in business are not all measured in dollars and cents. Other rewards exist, such as the good feelings that come from treating people with courtesy and respect.
In the second place, being kind to people is profitable in the long run. People who are refused credit still have needs. They are likely to satisfy those needs somewhere. They may have to buy for cash. If you are friendly to them, they just might buy from you. In addition, the fact that people are bad credit risks now does not mean that they will never be good credit risks. Many people who are good credit accounts today were bad risks at some time in the past. By not offending bad risks now, you may keep them as friends of your company until they become good risks.
2.23. Fitting the General Plan to the Credit Refusal:
Adapting the preceding comments to the general plan, the following structure for credit-refusal messages emerges:
Begin with words that set up the strategy (explanation), are neutral as to the decision, and tie in with the application. Present the explanation.
Refuse tactfully—to a bad character risk, by implication; to a person with weak finances or in a weak economic environment, positively and with a look to the future. End with adapted goodwill words
2.24. Credit Refusal Message (A Form Refusal for Bad Character Risks):
As the merge information in the address area indicates, this is a department store’s form letter refusing credit to bad character risks. Such stores ordinarily use form letters because they must handle credit on a mass basis. Because form letters must fit a variety of people and cases, they tend to be general.

Company Name (Sender)
Address: ……………………………………
Telephone No: …………………

Date: ………………
Company Name (Receiver)
Address: ……………………………………
Telephone No: …………………
Faulty (xyz) product

Dear sir,

We sincerely appreciate your interest in an account with Dayton Hudson Corp. Whenever we can, we are always willing to serve you.
In determining what we can do for you regarding your «Request Date» request for credit, we made the routine check you authorized. The information we have received permits us to serve you only as a cash customer. But, as you know, cash buying here at Dayton Hudson 's can mean real savings for you.
We look forward to seeing you in the store again and serving you very soon.

Sincerely,
Cynthia R. Wunch
Credit Manager

2.25. Persuasive
Persuasive messages are appropriately written in indirect order
Achieving the change requires indirectness
Require a slow and deliberate approach
General Advice
Know Your Readers
Choose and Develop Targeted Reader Benefit
Make Good Use of Three Kinds of Appeals
Logic ( Logos)
Emotion ( Pathos)
Character of the Speaker (Ethos)
Make it Easy for your Readers to Comply
2.26. PERSUASIVE REQUESTS
Determining the Persuasion
Gaining Attention in the opening
Presenting the Persuasion
Making the Request Clearly and Positively
Determining the Persuasion
Strategy that will convince your reader
Plan the persuasion that will overcome the reader’s objections
Many persuasive appeals may be used- money rewards, personal benefits, good will and so on.
Gaining Attention in the opening
Writing to a person who not invited your message and probably does not agree with your goal
The opening sets the strategy and gains attention
Attention is needed to get the reader in a mood to receive the persuasion
What you write to gain the attention is limited only by your imagination
Presenting the Persuasion
Present the points convincingly
Making the Request Clearly and Positively
Follow the Persuasion with the request
Word the request for best effect
Do not use a negative tone
Be positive
The request can end the message or be followed by more persuasion
Ending with a reminder of the appeal is also good
2.27. SALES MESSAGES
1. Questioning the Acceptability of Sales Messages
2. Planning the Structure
3. Knowing the product or Service and the Reader
4. Determining the Appeal
5. Determining the Mechanics
6. Gaining Attention
7. Holding Attention in the Opening
8. Presenting the Sales Material
9. Stressing the You View Point
10. Choosing Words Carefully
11. Including All Necessary Information
12. Driving for The Sale
13. Urging the Action
14. Recalling the Appeal
15. Adding Postscript
16. Inviting Name removal to Email Readers

2.28. Structuring of Sales Letters
The Headline
Whenever you’re writing copy, the headline is the most critical part of your content. In your sales letter, begin with the biggest benefit you have to offer. Remember, it’s got to be compelling enough for the reader to continue reading.
Salutation
Never, ever start your sales letter with “Dear Customer” or “Dear Friend”! It’s impersonal and demonstrates your laziness in not finding out their names. Find out what the names of your recipients are and address them by name in your letter.
1st paragraph
You might be tempted to start telling a story here and to set the scene for the rest of your letter. Don’t! Get to the point here. Open with your main benefit. Or engage your prospects from the beginning by asking a question.
Main body
I’ll assume you’ve already presented your main points and mentioned at least one of your benefits. The main body is where you need to build on your main points and back up them up. Use statistics, studies and other relevant research to show the value of your product.
Testimonials
Here is where you turn on the social proof. Include testimonials to let your prospects know how others have been using your product. And what their experiences have been. This also breathes life into your letter and demonstrates how others have taken the plunge and bought your product
Call to action:
Tell your readers what you want them to do next. Your call to action should be geared towards what you want to achieve with your letter. Don’t assume that it’s obvious for them! If you want more orders tell them; “Place your order today!”
The Postscript (PS)
Always include a postscript in your letter. There’s a chance prospects will only scan your sales letter. And your PS will be one of the things that will grab their attention. Therefore it’s critical you include your offer or call to action in the postscript.
2.30. Memorandums
Business memorandum or memoranda — also called memo or memos — are specially formatted written communications within your business. A memo 's format is typically informal (but still all-business) and public. Memos typically make announcements, discuss procedures, report on company activities, and disseminate employee information. If you have something confidential to communicate, don’t do it in a memo.
The tone of memos usually is informal and friendly. Although you don’t need to be curt, officious, or patronizing, a certain succinctness is acceptable. Structure the memo so that the most important information comes in the first paragraph and that subsequent paragraphs spell out what 's discussed in the first paragraph.
All memos are structured similarly. They have the following elements:
An addressee: Flush left, in capital letters, near the top of the page
The sender: Flush left, in caps, immediately below the addressee
Date: Flush left, in caps, immediately below the sender’s name
Subject: Flush left, in caps, immediately below the date
Use suitable paper for your memos — white bond, either note size or standard to fit most desk in-baskets.
This figure shows an example of a properly structured memo.

2.31. Business Emails
Communication is the essence of everyday life. There are different types of communication and each type is equally important in its own way. Business communication is an inherent part of every organization. No business can function in the absence of a strong and able communication system. And with the advent of different modes and means of communication, email has become an indispensable part of business writing. Quite an obvious choice, because it is quick and can serve as a documented evidence of the day-to-day transactions and daily interactions between client and organization or even between the employees within an organization. This article will give you a sample and format of a business email that will help you understand better how to write one yourself.
2.30.1 How to Write a Business Email:
Know whom you 'll be writing the email to. Get the names, titles and spellings right.
Once you know the person, you 'll know what kind of tone you need to use with the person. If the person is a client, a formal tone of letter writing is recommended. If it 's one of your colleagues (same level) you may use a casual tone, but make sure it 's not over friendly.
If you 're writing a business to business email, the tone that you use reflects the attitude and the type of communication that is used in your organization, so be cautious.
As in all types of formal writing, avoid flowery language. Stick to the point, because no one has the time to read a long email that is heading nowhere!
Example:
To: Email address of first recipient
CC: If any
Subject: Mention in one line, the purpose of writing the email, so as to grab the attention of the intended recipient. You may explicitly mention the name of the person in the subject line using the acronym FAO (for the attention of) in case the recipient has a generic account.

Salutation: Dear Sir/Madam,
This is after all, a form of letter writing, so use the same letter writing tips that you 've learned in school. In this first paragraph, introduce yourself and the purpose of writing the email. Be brief.

In the second paragraph, give the details of why you 're writing the email and what exactly you hope to achieve by it. Again, be brief and to the point.

The third paragraph may or may not be required. It is just to thank the reader and hope, once again, that your purpose is fulfilled.

Salutation: Sincerely,
Your name, or signature that your organization may have assigned you.

Now, in the following samples, we will see how exactly it is done.

To: abc@wyz.com
CC: Accounts Payable
Subject: Request for copy of invoice

Dear ABC,

I 'm LMN from the Accounts Payable department at GHI. Ltd. I understand that we have an invoice outstanding with your company since 07/01/2010. This email is to request you for a copy of the invoice, so that we can clear it for payment at the earliest.

First of all, apologies for the delay in payment. The accounts team has been reshuffled and this case came to my notice just an hour ago and I am writing to you immediately. The invoice in question is invoice number 246849, for Mr. JKI who stayed at your hotel for a period of 4 days. That is, from 06/28/2010 to 07/01/2010.

We cannot seem to locate the invoice, so I request you to send me a copy of the invoice, so that I can issue the payment right away. Please send it to the email address mentioned below and mark it for my attention. Once again, sincere apologies for the delay.

Thank you,
LMN,
Senior Executive
Accounts Payable,
GHI. Ltd

email: accountspayable@ghi.com
In the next sample, you will see how to respond to such an email.

To: accountspayable@ghi.com
CC: Accounts Credit
Subject: FAO-LMN: Copy of invoice

Dear LMN,

This is in reference to the email that you sent me this morning. First off, I would like to thank you for taking the initiative of asking for the invoice copy.

As requested by you, I have attached a copy of the invoice 246849. I 'm sure you have our bank details.

Thank you,
ABC,
Accounts Credit,
DYU Group of Hotels

email: accountscredit@dyugroup.com

You will come across such strings of business emails in your daily activities in a business organization. So keep these tips in mind and make sure you communicate effectively.

2.31. Direct memorandums:
The Accounts Department has drawn my attention to a medical bill submitted by you on 5 November, 19….you have claimed Rs. 758 as reimbursement for getting yourself treated for brail hepatitis during the third week of October. Your Application for three days’ leave submitted on October 17 stated that you were suffering from flu-25 memos. Circulars. notes. Obviously, the medical bill submitted by you is not genuine.
I know for certain that the medical bill referred to above does not present an isolated case. Discrepancies noticed in several earlier bills have cast persistent debts over their genuineness.
Claiming reimbursement against fake medical bills is a serious matter calling for stern action. You are hereby warned that you will not indulge in this unethical practice in future, failing which strict Disciplinary action will be initiated against you.
Getting fake bills signed and physically assaulting your immediate superior are both actions of gross misconduct. Please explain in writing why disciplinary action under the service rules should not be taken explanation is received by then it will be assumed that you have no explanation to offer and disciplinary action will be initiated against you.

2.32. OFFICE ORDERS
The word order suggests acceptance or compliance. If a message is conveying as an order, it means that it carries a stamp of authority with it and has to be accepted. Office order is a tool of downward communication. it travels from the higher-ups down to the subordinates.
Orders are usually related to posting, promotion, suspension, termination of services, granting/ withholding increments, granting/ withholding certain privileges, imposing certain restrictions, intimation of disciplinary proceedings, etc.
An office order is a very sensitive form of communication and if misunderstood or misinterpreted, it can lead to serious unintended consequences. The following points should be kept in mind while drafting orders.
Orders must be very concise; they must not contain any unnecessary details.
The language employed should be absolutely clear. The order should be written in very simple words that can be easily understood by all. Idioms, phrases and slang’s should be should be strictly avoided.
Orders should clearly specify who they are meant for. Some orders are sent to the concerned individuals with copies to the concerned departments, others may be meant for display on the notice boards.
2.33. Indirect memorandums:
The following example is problematic for several reasons first, the bad news is mentioned right away, in the subject line and in the first sentence. Upon reading this news, the reader might be shocked, will probably be angry, and may not read the rest of the memo. To prepare the reader and to try to get the reader to understand the reasoning the writer should place a buffer and the reasons before the news. Second, this memo lacks you-attitude and is written from the writer’s own viewpoint. Notice that the word “1” is used 8 times. This tone may cause the reader to conclude that the writer doesn’t care about him or her. Throughout the memo, the writer needs to be more concerned about the reader’s reactions and opinions.
To:
From:
Subject: Travel Request Denial
Date: 6 June 1990
I regret to inform you that your request for travel funds to travel to the Syllabus conference in Santa Clara, California, has been denied. The university has limited funds available for travel this year and although I know you really want to go, I can’t afford to give you the $1500 you requested(which by the way is a lot to request at this late date at the current time of this request.

I hope you understand our position because we really want our faculty to be happy. Even though I can’t pay for this trip, I encourage you to apply again for future travel money because I hope to receive more money budgeted for travel the next fiscal year of 2000/2001.
Thank you again for your request. I always strive to help faculty fund their travels.

2.34. How to Deliver Bad News in Business Writing:
If your news will cause your reader to emotionally disconnect from your message, before he or she reads fully, you should buffer your message.
If the news is not significant, you can use a direct approach:
To help readers accept your decision when using the direct plan, present a brief rationale along with the bad news in the first paragraph:
NOT:
The annual company Holiday Party originally scheduled for December 20 at the Boston Aquarium has been canceled.
BUT:
Because the current renovations at the Boston Aquarium may present safety hazards to our employees and their families, the Holiday Party scheduled for December 20 has been canceled.
If leading with the negative news might be too harsh and emphatic, and your decision might sound unreasonable until the reader has heard the rationale, buffer the bad news indirectly by beginning with a neutral and relevant statement.
Scenario: an important customer has asked your company to provide an in-house demonstration of your product, but this is against your policy.
Agreement:
We both recognize the promotional possibilities that often accompany a big anniversary sale such as yours.
Appreciation:
Thanks for letting us know of your success in selling ABC appliances. (Stop here - don 't thank them for asking you to do something you 're going to refuse or you 'll sound insincere)
Compliment:
Congratulations on the growth of your stores and for your leadership in the Boston market for ten years.
Construction of E-mail
The purpose of an advertisement or a letter in mail order selling is to get an order now. For this, it is important to know the motives for which people buy. Whether people buy from salesmen or by mail, they buy for the same reason. They respond to the same appeals. They act only if they are persuaded into believing that they will be deriving greater satisfaction from possessing a product or enjoying a service then from the money which this product or service costs. Some of the motives are outline below:
1. Security: Appeal to the buyer’s desire for protection against some adversity. Stress the point that the product you are advertising acts as a security against something that he might be afraid of. An insurance policy a locking system can be sold by this technique.
2. Comfort: Comfort is another powerful motive behind buying goods. The comfort aspects can certainly be stressed in advertising domestic appliances.
3. Vanity: People have a great desire to be ‘exclusive’, to possess something that others do not have. So you may appeal to their desire to be a big shot in the eyes of those whose opinion they value.
4. Love: People are willing to sacrifice for those whom they love. Women, in particular, would do anything for their children. So it pays to emphasize the needs the love ones.
5. Curiosity: This is not as unusual a motive to buy things as it might initially appear. If the desire to possess money be weighed against the desire to satisfy a curiosity, it is quite possible that the letter might prove the weightier. Any or a combination of the motives mentioned above may be stressed while preparing an advertisement copy or sales letter three hurdles that must be overcome.
1. People may just not be interested. This is the first hurdle. And a major one. It is your job to make them interested. Let the opening of your letters appeal to any of the motives mentioned above.
2. They may not have faith. Direct mail advertisers are often looked at with suspicion. People thing that are unethical people just out to make a fast buck. Testimonials from satisfied buyers, free –trial offer and money-back guarantees in case the buyer is not fully satisfied can help you to win their faith.
3. They may just act lazy. If an order is not placed promptly, that is now, chances are, and it will not be placed at all. Discount coupons in overcoming this hurdle.
2.35. Job search strategies:
Individuals who are looking for work changing jobs or trying to find summer employment often experience challenges and frustration. The job search process is often considered to be a job in itself. It takes time. Afford and commitment. It is a process that requires a great deal of dedication. manage the jobs search process
Market yourself
Self-employment/entrepreneurship
Links to related online resources.

2.36. Prepare a job application.
From
431 Ram Chandra Nivas
Mangalwar Peth
Bheemangar
15th February, 19

To
The president
Model Education Society
Krutapur (Karnataka)

Dear Sir
For a college to be newly established, a highly qualified and experienced principal is an asset. Equally important, I am sure you will agree, is a lecturer who would take up the brunt of the teaching burden during the initial period and would also assist the principal in administrative matters. That is what has prompted me to apply for the post of the senior lecturer in commerce in your college advertised by you in the Indian Express dated 12th February, 19.

The enclosed bio-data gives you details about my academic achievements, teaching experience and interest in extracurricular activities. May I have a personal interview at your convenience so that I can substantiate my statements and answer any other questions you may like to ask?

Yours faithfully
K. T. Nath

Chapter-3
3.1 Recommendation:
To learn about written communication to communicate business purpose with external and internal users is important.
Should be clear about written communication before use it.
Should use a standard business format
Should be record for future reference
To know about how to apply for a job and make resume.
Should be know how to claim and responds for customer by business letter
The principle of written communication discusses the all written communication instrument of business organization so we should know about it properly.
We used it to increase business good will.

Chapter-4:
4.1 Conclusion:
As this chapter has shown, written communication continues to be an important skill to master in the 21st century and takes many forms. The chapter has provided many guidelines and tips to improve your written communication, but there are two points that we wish to emphasis above all:
Plan any communication and take into account the needs of the audience and the limitations of the communication medium chosen.
Review the communication carefully before sending. Adopt the ‘find the error’ approach.

Bibliography:

Bibliography:

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