sains

Topics: Fraud, Computer, Credit card fraud Pages: 12 (2555 words) Published: October 5, 2013


Fakulti Pendidikan dan Bahasa

September 2011 ( SMP KHAS )

OUMH1203

English For Written Communication

TOPIC 1 ►CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIMES

INTRODUCTION

The crimes committed against computers have been growing gradually during 21st century. This situation is started to claim attention in national capitals. The major platforms for transactions by using communication technologies in government and company infrastructure become potential victims of cyber crime. Individuals’ personal data in banks or government institutions will be revealed. However, existing laws are still unenforceable against the crimes.

1.1WHAT IS CYBER CRIME?

According to the definition in the dictionary, “Cyber crime” means “a criminal activity committed on the internet. This is a broad term that describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money".

As the classification of President of www.cyberlaws.net and consultant, Mr. Pavan Duggal, cybercrimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories. They are Cyber crimes against persons, Cyber crimes against property and Cyber crimes against government.

The Council of Europe Convention on Cyber crime defines computer-related crimes as: computer-related offences such as forgery and fraud, content-related offences such as child pornography, offences related to infringements of copyright such as the illegal online sharing of copyrighted material, offences against the confidentiality, integrity and

availability of computer data and systems such as illegal access, illegal interception, data interference and system interference.

In Grabosky & Smith (1998), the following categories of crime were found to be emerging in the digital age: 1. Illegal telecommunications interception (e.g. hacking, cracking, data manipulation) 2. Electronic vandalism

3. Electronic terrorism (e.g. viruses, denial-of-service attacks, spamming) 4. Theft of data and communications services
5. Telecommunications and associated intellectual property piracy 6. Electronic distribution of pornography
7. Electronic fraud (e.g. phishing)
8. Electronic funds transfer crime
9. Money laundering

1.2. CLASSIFY THE CYBER CRIMES

In fact, based on definition of Grabosky & Smith ( 1998) and Mr. Pavan Duggal, { 1 }

Cyber crime in Malaysia can be categorized into four categories as follows: (A) Cyber crime against Individual
(B) Cyber crime against Property
(C) Cyber crime against Organization
(D) Cyber crime against Society

1.2.1 Cyber crime against Individual

This category includes :
i. Harassment via e-mails.
ii. Cyber-stalking.
iii. Dissemination of obscene material.
iv. Defamation.
v. Unauthorized control/access over computer system.
vi. Fraud and cheating
In addition, the word “hacker” should also be defined here because it will be used extensively in this article. Hackers are basically people who break into and harm the information in the computer systems without the permission of the computer owner or user. Besides, the obvious economic threats of hacking is also real physical danger which can be caused by hacking into computer networks. For examples, The Malaysian Parliament website that was been hacked by the IP Addresses in Brazil and France on December 2000 after tracing. The relevant authorities in those countries were contacted for assistance in the investigation.

1.2.2 Cyber crime Against Organization

Cyber crime against organization includes Credit Card Fraud, Intellectual Property crime which consist of software piracy such as distribution of copies of software, illegal copying of programs, trademarks violations, copyright infringement, theft of computer source code and Internet time theft which means the unauthorized usage of the Internet hours by the person who is not the payer.

Moreover, Credit card fraud is a...
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