When testing urine the test results may provide information regarding the status of carbohydrate metabolism and kidney function.
The kidney glomeruli act as ultrafilters for the plasma protein; however as much as 150 mg/dl of protein may normally be excreted into the urine. In glomerular proteinuria, an increase in glomerular permeability occurs, resulting in an increase of urine proteins. High urine protein concentration therefore may indicate proteinuria.
Blood glucose concentration above the renal threshold will overflow into the urine. This situation normally arises in diabetes patients. In renal diabetes, the renal threshold is reduced to the point where sugar appears in the urine …show more content…
Repeat steps 2 to 5 with Urine Normal and Urine High.
Specific gravity varies according to fluid intake and can also be affected by diseases.
1. Using a dropping pipet, place 5 drops of urine into a glass vial.
2. Rinse the dropper thoroughly with water and add 10 drops of water to the vial.
3. Drop one Clinitest® tablet into the vial. Place the vial on the tabletop and observe the reaction. Caution: the glass vial will become very hot during the chemical reaction.
4. After the reaction has stopped, wait 15 seconds. Shake gently to mix the contents. Caution: do not allow the contents of the vial to come into contact with your skin or eyes. Compare the color to the Clinitest® color chart.
5. Record the results of the test for glucose (positive or negative) in Table 1. Glucose (sugar) should not be detected in normal urine. The presence of glucose usually indicates diabetes mellitus, a severe metabolic disorder due to defective carbohydrate utilization.
1. Using a 10 ml graduated cylinder, add 1 ml urine to a clean glass vial.
2. Rinse the graduated cylinder and measure 2 ml biuret reagent. Note the pale blue color of the biuret reagent.
3. Add the biuret reagent to the urine …show more content…
The sample Urine High and Urine A is positive for diabetes mellitus. The sample of Urine B could belong to someone who is on a high protein diet, starvation, fasting or has severe anemia.
Test Tube Color
Begin Color Change Contain Protein Digestion
# 1 Clear Cloudy, Light purple No
# 2 Clear Same, Light purple No
# 3 Clear Same, Light pink/purple Yes
From the above data, it is obvious that test tube # 3 is positive for protein digestion. Enzymes all work best at an optimum temperature that is usually body temperature at 37ºC. If the temperature that the enzyme has to work at gets too high, normally 40ºC it will start to become denatured and therefore no longer work on its substrate as the active site has changed shape. In addition, enzymes usually work best at an optimum pH level, this is normally seven because enzymes are proteins which are damaged by very acidic or very alkaline