I am going to explain the different psychological approaches in health and social care practice. Firstly I am going to explain the psychological approach of the application of the behaviourist perspective which involves changing and shaping behaviour. By using positive and negative reinforcement, Skinner believed he could change/train any animal or human to change behavior patterns and this is achieved by changing or shaping behavior. Shaping behavior is achieved by writing a plan. There are four main steps to shape behavior which includes Identifying problem behaviors. But not all behaviors require a behavior management plan. Analyzing behavior. Behaviour’s do generally have a trigger or situation that causes the behavior---and a consequence. To develop an effective behaviour plan, you need to know what sets off the behaviour and what the behavior accomplishes. This means spending time watching the individual before even thinking as writing a plan. Then you need to select an approach because An effective behavior management plan must have positive reinforcement to support good behaviour, what reward would the individual wish to receive. Then you need to develop clear goals/targets. A plan should have clear goals (and achievable ones) when the individual has mastered a skill or is behaving well they understand this (because they have had positive feedback) and can move on to the next goal/target. Secondly, I am going to explain the psychological approach of the application of the social learning theory. Bandura points out that we do not have to wait to receive positive or negative reinforcement in order to understand how to do things. Bandura argues that the society we live teaches us, we learn by watching and every one of us. For example television, magazines, friends and family then we copy them. The role models we are most likely to learn from are the same sex models, the same sex models showing gender appropriate behaviour, models who have reinforced their behaviour, high status models and significant models. The social learning theory can help us in every day situation by media campaigns or televisions advertisements or programs can be used to change behaviour. By using a powerful role model like a celebrity it is hope to change attitudes or behaviour. E.g. drug, cigarette or alcohol use. The third one I am going to explain the psychological approach of the application of the psychodynamic perspective to health and social care. Freud believed that our minds were made up of three different parts- id, ego and the superego. The id works on the pleasure principle, the ego works on the reality principle and the superego works on the mortality principle. Problems arise when there is a clash between these three different elements. The psychoanalysis is that many mental problems are caused by the unconscious factors and repressed material. So the main aim of the therapy is to uncover this repressed material. Once uncovered, clients are able to release the power it has over their behaviour (e.g. causes their mental illness). This is called catharsis. Free association, dream analysis, projective tests can be used. In the free association the client is encouraged to express their thoughts exactly as they come into their mind, even though they may seem irrelevant or inappropriate. The ego will attempt the censor what is said, but the free thinking allows previously unconscious thoughts to slip through and bring into consciousness memories what have been repressed. This releases the power it had over their behaviour- hence a talking cure. The dream analysis “the royal road to the unconscious”. The imagery of dreams is symbolic and the therapist identifies what the symbols mean and find out why they are causing anxiety. The fourth one I am going to explain the psychological approach of the application of the humanistic perspective to health and social care. This approach stresses the importance of how each...
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