UNIT 8 – Phychological Perspectives for Health and Social Care
APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
P1) Explain the principal psychological perspectives: * Describe how the principles of classical conditioning can explain why a patient is petrified of having injections; * Describe how the principles of operant conditioning could explain why a child has persistent tantrums.
P1) Psychology uses seven different theoretical perspectives to explore psychological events: * Evolutonary Perspective - is about how nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one‘s genes; * Behavioral Perspective – is about how we learn observable responses; * Neuroscience Perspective – is about how the brain and body creates memories, emotions and sensory experiences; * Social-Cultural Perspective – is about how our thinking and behaviour vary across the situations and cultures; * Psychodynamic Perspective – is about how our behaviour springs from unconcious drives and conflicts; * Cognitive Perspective – is about how we process, encode, store and retrieve information; * Behavior Genetics Perspective – is about how much our genes and environment influence our individual differences.
So what means classical conditioning?
It is a form of learning in which one stimulus (the conditioned stimulus or CS), comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus or US).
And how the principles of it can explain why a patient is petrified of having injections?
Conditioning is usually done by pairing the two events. The first event is called a stimulus and the second is a response. So if a patient is petrified of having injections, it means that he or she suffered from very painfull prick in his/her childhood (from bee‘s sting or he/she stept on the glass), and it caused that a patient have an automatic psysiological reaction of being afraid of