Unit 1 Psychology Notes

Topics: Psychology, Statistical hypothesis testing, Null hypothesis Pages: 8 (3522 words) Published: April 29, 2014
Unit 1- Psychology’s History, Approaches, and Research Methods Content Master Map People

1. Socrates –
Greek Philosopher; believed mind and body are separated. When the body dies, the mind lives on; Believes knowledge is innate; Ideas lead to introspection (looking into one’s mind)

2. John Locke –
Believed people were born with tabula rasa

3. Mary Whiton Calkins – student of James; memory research, 1st woman president of APA, was denied a Harvard Ph.d. because of her gender

4. John Watson - Behaviorist

5. Plato – Socrates’s student, Greek philosopher who believed that knowledge is innate

6. Thomas Hobbes - contributed materialism (idea that things that can be seen and observed) ; his ideas influenced behaviorism

7. Margaret Floy Washburn – Ph.d. student of Tichner, 1st woman to get ph.d in psychology, APA’s 2nd femal president, denied joining experimental psychology because of her gender

8. B.F. Skinner - behaviorist

9. Aristotle – believed the opposite of Socrates and Plato; Plato’s student, believed that we get knowledge through observing our world

10. Wilhelm Wundt – father of modern/scientific psychology, conducted first psychological experiment in 1979, intended to learn basic elements of consciousness, developed voluntarism (theory that attention is selective)

11. Carl Rogers - humanistic psychologist

12. Charles Darwin – contributed the idea that the genetic material of our ancestors are passed on and based on their ability to survive and flourish in an environment.

13. Rene Descartes – believed in dualism and mechanistic view (both the mind and body are separated from each other); humans are the exception to the mechanistic view (the brain and body are connected somehow because the brain controls the body and the body provides information for the brain to interpret); believed that animals are made to work like machines and in the cavities of an animal’s brain, they had fluid that had spirits that controlled the animal’s behavior

14. Edward Bradford Titchner – student of Wundt, used introspection to study consciousness; broke it into 3 parts: feelings, images/memories, physical sensations; developed structuralism (combining all three elements to deal with the environment and to be aware of conscience) *he thought it was possible to not be thinking

15. Abraham Maslow – humanistic psychologist

16. Francis Bacon – founder of modern science; would be an experimental psychologist if here today

17. William James – opposed structuralism; conscious not separate and believed in a stream of consciousness, developed functionalism; 3 functions of conscience: 1) remember past 2) adapt to present 3) plan for future

18. Sigmund Freud – studied unconscious and personality

Key Terms
1. Psychology – the scientific study of behavior and mental processes 2. Behavior – organism’s action that is observed, recorded, anything that can be seen 3. Mental processes – internal, personal experiences assumed from behavior ex: emotions, thoughts, perceptions, etc. 4. Innate - born with the ability (Socrates and Plato believed knowledge was innate) 5. Introspection – looking inside one’s own mind

6. Pineal gland – where mind and body interaction takes place 7. Tabula rasa – blank slate, John Locke believed people were born with it 8. Stream of consciousness – idea that one never stops thinking; proposed by functionalist William James 9. Behaviorism – study of one’s observable behavior

10. Human potential – the ability to maximize ourselves in every area and be the best at its abilities to achieve fulfillment 11. Cognitive neuroscience – science of how the brain takes in processes, stores and retrieves information 12. Nature – are we the product of our genes (Plato and Descartes) 13. Nurture – are we the product of our environment (Locke and Aristotle) 14. Levels of analysis – biosychosocial approach: combining 3 levels together to explain behavior and...
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