Fields of Philosophy Matrix

Topics: Immanuel Kant, Morality, Philosophy, René Descartes, John Locke, Epistemology / Pages: 4 (850 words) / Published: Sep 14th, 2010
FIELD
DEFINITION
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
PRINCIPAL ISSUES

Epistemology the theory of knowledge, is the branch of philosophy concerned with these questions a. Schools of thought and historical development
1) Skeptics
a) Ancient
(1) Pyrrho of Elis
(2) Sextus Empiricus
b) Medieval
(1) St. Augustine
2) Rationalists
a) Ancient
(1) Plato
b) Medieval
(1) St. Anselm
(2) St. Augustine
c) Modern
(1) Descartes
(2) Leibniz
(3) Spinoza
3) Empiricists
a) Ancient
(1) Aristotle
b) Medieval
(1) St. Thomas Aquinas
c) Modern
(1) Locke
(2) Berkeley
(3) Hume
4) Kant and post-Kantian thinkers (Modern)
a) Immanuel Kant
b) Hegel
5) Pragmatism (contemporary-20th Century)
a) Pierce
b) James
c) Dewey Skepticism- method of achieving certainty
Empiricism- that is, there is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses.
Rationalism- holds that the intellect contains important truths that were not placed there by sensory experience. “Something never comes from nothing,” Aristotle (384–322 b.c.e.)

John Locke (1632–1704)

Plato (427-357 BC)

David Hume (1711-1776)

Kant (1724-1804)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Skepticism is a method knowledge
a. Principle issues of epistemology
1) The nature of knowledge
a) Justified belief
b) True belief
2) Sources of knowledge
a) Reason
b) Sense experience
3) The nature of truth
a) Correspondence theories
b) Coherence theories
c) Pragmatic theories
4) Justification of belief
a) Deductive logic
b) Inductive logic
5) Limitations of knowledge
a) Absolutism
b) Skepticism
Falliblism.

Metaphysics the branch of philosophy that is concerned with these questions Metaphysical questions do not necessarily correlate with a particular time period.
6) Realism
a) Aristotle
b) Aquinas
c) Locke
d) Kant
7) Idealism
a) Plato
b) Berkeley
8) Materialism
a) Hobbes
9) Dualism
a) Descartes
10) Monism
a) Leibniz
b) Spinoza
11)

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