The Umayyads tried to convert the Islamic conquests into a secular state. The Umayyad caliphs extended the territories of Islam to the walls of Constantinople, the borders of China, and along the southern coast of the Mediterranean to Spain. The Umayyads attempted to maintain a strictly Arab elite within their state. As the number of non-Arab converts to Islam grew, dissatisfaction with the concept of Arab—especially Quraysh—dominance festered. Demands for greater equality among all Muslims coalesced with reformers’ claims into a broad movement that unseated the Umayyads. Distant relatives of Muhammad, the ‘Abbasids, were recognized as rightful successors. In 750 the ‘Abbasids replaced the Umayyads as rulers everywhere but in Spain. At the outset, the ‘Abbasids represented the reform movement and set out to govern according to strict religious principles. Arabs lost their control of Islamic government which was opened to all Muslims. The ‘Abbasids created a new capital in Baghdad, a recognition of the new importance of Iraq and Persia in the new government. The ‘Abbasids claimed absolute rights of government based on the righteousness of their claims to power. The caliphs created a centralized bureaucracy on the model of the eastern empires. Slave soldiers replaced the originally Arab armies. By the tenth century, the ‘Abbasid caliphs lost absolute control over Islam. Local military commanders, emirs, took over provincial governments. Various Shi’ite movements successfully established separatist governments. The most important Shi’ite revolution resulted in the creation of the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt. A third caliphate arose in Spain under the Umayyad, ‘Abd ar-Rahman III. External invasion led to the final collapse of the ‘Abbasids. Seljuk Turks conquered Baghdad in 1055, while much of northern Africa fell to Moroccan Berbers. The invasions disrupted the commercial and economic systems of the Islamic
UMAYYAD AND ABBASID CALIPHATES COMPARED
(657-750CE) Umayyad clan starts as a foe to Muhammad. They are defeated at Mecca by Muhammad’s forces but are embraced by Muhammad and become a powerful Muslim clan that will lead the faith after Muhammad.
After the first three caliphs, The followers of Ali will split away from the faith….
wa’l-Jama’s, or Sunni for short?
12. List 5 regions/countries conquered by the Muslim caliphs.
13. What caused the unrest that led to the fall of the Umayyad caliphate?
14. Why was the Abassid period called a “golden age”?
15. Why did the Abassid caliphate decline in power?
16. After failing to reform their government and military, the Abassid Caliphate fell under the influence whom?
17. Who were the ulama?
18. Describe the change in economy, government involvement in religious matters, and population….
Even though the Abbasid Caliphs were the direct succors of the Umayyad they ruled entirely differently. Both empires ruled very differently in how they handled the economy, politics and social fields. In an Example of the economy the Caliphs during the Abbasid Empire hit a Golden Age while both were similar in how they handled slaves.
The Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs both had very different political systems. Even thought influences of the Umayyad did carry over into the Abbasid rule very little….
• What were the reasons behinds the decline of Abbasid caliphate?
Harun al-Rashid was the last 'Abbasid caliph to rule a clean-cut empire and after his death, the empire was divided in two. One son, Amin, got the western area and the caliphate, and his other son, Al-Mamun got the eastern area, the army, and the right to succession. Moreover, the 4th Fitna (811-813) was not about religious principles, but it was a civil war between Amin and Al-Mamun; Amin wanted his son to be the next caliph, but….
Umayyad vs. Abbasid Dynasties
In the rise and spreading of the Islam religion, there were many dynasties that were similar and different in their own way. The Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties can be compared: culturally, through religious tolerations and cultural blending; politically, through bureaucracy and misuse of government powers; and economically, through trade and advancements of technology.
Culturally through religious toleration and cultural blending, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties….
The Abbasid Caliphate’s success as an empire led it to rule over the Middle East from the year 750 to 1254 C.E. Abbas, the first caliph, overthrew the Umayyad’s to create a more righteous caliphate that wanted to follow the Prophet and the Islamic teaching. Little did he know that he was going to create a prosperous empire that would benefit the entire world. Abbas and his successors lead Islam to its golden age. Many people desired the Abbasid Caliphate and chose to move to its province because….
The Abbasid Revolution
The Abbasid Dynasty, known to its supporters as the ‘blessed dynasty’, which imposed its authority on the Islamic empire in 132/750, claimed to inaugurate a new era of justice, piety and happiness. The dynasty ruled the Islamic Caliphate from 750 to 1258 AD, making it one of the longest and most influential Islamic dynasties. For most of its early history, it was the largest empire in the world, and this meant that it had contact with distant neighbors such as the Chinese….
which was the lands under Islamic rule. The Abbasid Empire was established after the fall of the Umayyad. The main reason for the Abbasids wealth and power came from trade. This helped establish political, cultural, and economic characteristics.
The Abbasids differed from many empires in its political view because it was not a conquering dynasty. Only slightly the Abbasids expanded their empire by conquest. Instead of conquering new lands the Abbasids were focusing on creating a government that….
The Abbasids came into rule after the Umayyads. It was said that the Abbasids invited the Umayyads to a meeting and they then killed them. The Abbasids had a strong ruling until their empire fell apart. Non-Muslims were supported by the Abbasids. Going through a golden age and being challenged by different groups had an effect on them. Many advancements were made in their time of rule and they were fortunate enough to have a prosperous capital which helped them quite a bit.
The Abbasids came into….
The name of Abbasid is derived from Abbas, who was Mohammad's uncle. It was one of the greatest of the Muslim empires, which was known as the golden age of Islamic culture. They ruled from 750 to 1258 AD. Their capital city was Baghdad. There were many caliphates who ruled Abbasid dynasty. the last caliph was killed by the Mongol when they invaded the city and took over. The Abbasids were known for their achievements such as trading routes with countries, education system, building new styles that….