Week One Study Guide
As you read this week’s required materials, complete this study guide. Review the material to study for the final examination in Week Five. This is a multipage assignment: double-check that you have completed each page before submitting.
History and Archaeology
I. Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences.
• The written record of the past and the study of past written records is called History . • The study of the past based on recovering and identifying artifacts and making inferences about those who left these artifacts is called Archaeology . • Both historians and archaeologists describe the past. Historians study written records to form this description, whereas archaeologists study artifacts . • Scholars’ ability to relate narrative stories of past Andean cultures is limited because they did not use written language , but recent advances in translating the Mayan language has allowed a more better understanding of Mesoamerican cultures. • Based on archaeological and genetic evidence, scholars believe that the first people to settle the Americas came across a natural land bridge from Siberia into Alaska..
The Civilization of Al-Andalus
I. Fill in the blanks to complete the following sentences that trace the development of Andalusian civilization.
• The first Spanish Umayyad, Abd al-Rahman, forced Charlemagne’s forces to retreat into France. • The 50-year reign of Abd al-Rahman III saw the defense of Córdoba from both the Fatimids in Africa and the Christians to the north. After his death, the caliphate fragmented into many smaller principalities. • The Almoravids and Almohads of North Africa invaded Spain in the 11th century to enforce strict Muslim rule. • The mercenary adventures of El Cid during the reconquest or reconquista made him Spain’s national hero. • In