This chapter introduces the core theories of employee motivation. It begins by introducing employee engagement, an increasingly popular concept associated with motivation. This definition relates to the four cornerstones of individual behavior and performance identified in the MARS model which was discussed on chapter 2. MARS means Motivation, Ability, Role Perceptions, and Situational Factors. Next, this chapter distinguish between drives and needs wherein I’ve learned how needs are shaped through the individual’s self-concept and other personal factors. On this topic, needs-goal-directed forces that people experience are shaped by the individual’s self-concept (including personality and values), social norms, and past ebxperience. There are 3 theories that focus on drives and needs. First is the Maslow’s need hierarchy. This theory focuses into a hierarchy of five levels and states that the lowest needs are initially most important but higher needs become more important as the lower ones are satisfied. Next, hMcClelland’s learned needs theory. This theory argues that needs can be strengthened through learning. The three needs studied in this respect have been need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation. And lastly, four-drive Theory. Four-drive theory states that everyone has four innate drives and this drives activate emotions that we regulate through a skill set that considers social norms, past experience, and personal values. I’ve even learned the levels of performances which are the E-to-P expectancy and O-to-P expectancy which as discussed on expectancy theory. This chapter also talked about the key elements of goal setting and feedback. And on the last part is about the organizational justice, including the dimensions and dynamics of equity theory and procedural justice. On this one, I’ve learned that companies need to consider not only equity of the distribution of resources but also fairness in the process of making resource allocation decisions.
This chapter talks about money and other financial rewards which are a fundamental part of the employment relationship, but their value and meaning vary from one person to the next. Organizations reward employees for their membership and seniority, job status, competencies, and performance. Competency-based rewards are becoming increasingly popular because they improve workforce flexibility and are consistent with the emerging idea of employability. However, they tend to be subjectively measured and can result in higher costs as employees spend more time learning new skills. It also tackled about the awards and bonuses, commissions, and other individual performance–based rewards that have existed for centuries and are widely used. Many companies are shifting to team-based rewards such as gainsharing plans and to organizational rewards such as employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), stock options, profit sharing, and balanced scorecards. Other thing I’ve learned is about the Job specialization which subdivided work into separate jobs for different people. This increases work efficiency because employees master the task quikly. However, , job specialization may reduce work motivation, create mental and physical health problems, lower product or service quality, and increase costs through discontentment, absenteeism, and turnover. Another one is about empowerment. Empowerment is a psychological concept represented by four dimensions: self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding the individual’s role in the organization. Last on is about self-leadership. Self-leadership is the process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task. This includes personal goal setting, constructive thought patterns, designing natural rewards, self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement. Constructive thought patterns include self-talk and mental imagery....
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