Motivation of employees at work is a subject widely discussed by human resources practioners. A plethora of potential benefits and importance of motivation in an organisation have been laid out and theories have often been used to vividly explain motivation. As such it is the aim of this essay to explain why it is important to motivate employees in an organisation with reference to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and McGregor’s theory X and Y of motivation. Definition of terms
Motivation – is defined as a process that account for an individual’s intensity, that is how a person tries, that one’s efforts must be channeled to something and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal, that is how long a person can maintain their effort. Extrinsic Motivation – is when employees are thus motivated by means of external rewards basically consisting of monetary incentives. Intrinsic Motivation – means that employees do particular tasks because of the satisfaction that they get in performing the task itself, such as recognition advancement.
Hodgets, (1985:489) cited that when employees are motivated productivity increases because they discover that their efforts are being appreciated, acknowledged and rewarded. This relates to Maslow’s esteem needs once people begin to satisfy their need to belong. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as production increases. The ever increasing external forces of national and international competition and economic, social, technological and governmental conditions have forced management to develop and require new techniques to motivate and maintain current levels of organizations efficiency and effectiveness, thereby achieving the esteem need of recognition and achievement and attention. Griffin, (1995:80) pointed out that motivation of employees decreases absenteeism. Motivated employees value their jobs and commit to exceeding management performance expectations. Not only do motivated employees show up for work more frequently but they are more engaged in the projects they work on and would want to achieve their physiological needs, such as food, shelter, sex, warmth and water hence they shun absenteeism. Managers should create an environment where employees love to come to work because they enjoy their jobs. Employees can be motivated by participating in making decisions about their own job instead of just telling them how to do their own job. By doing so employees morale is increased as McGregor’s Theory Y will have positive assumptions that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. This will help employees to exercise self direction and seek control if they are committed to the objectives. (Wallace 1977:89) Robbins, (1998:156 ) of the view that motivation improves financial stability of employees especially the old age as they retire, they are guaranteed their safety and security as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states. Employees are able to receive their pensions and also retire and continue benefiting from the organisation. Motivating employees also help the organisation in improving industrial relations or harmony as McGregor’s theory suggest that such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs and good relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s job motivation. Wallace, (1977:87) cited that motivation of employees result in lowered employee turnover. The more motivated and satisfied employees are, the more likely they are to stay in an organisation. As this relates to Maslow’s social acceptance need. Employees are social beings, they need to belong, to be accepted by others and also needs security and protection, above all a sense of belongingness. This also strengthens an organizations bottom line as it lowers costs of hiring, recruiting and training employees. Every individual needs motivation to work and the challenges faced by managers is the motivation of employees. Every individual has needs that...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document