2. The ocean acts as a massive heat-retaining solar panel.
3. Salinity, temperature and depth all affect the density of seawater.
4. A pycnocline is the cline or layer where the density gradient (∂ρ⁄∂z) is greatest within a body of water.
5. The thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water layer. The definitions of these layers are based on temperature.
6. A halocline is a subtype of chemocline caused by a strong, vertical salinity gradient within a body of water. Because salinity (in concert with temperature) affects the density of seawater, it can play a role in its vertical stratification.
7. Pycnocline: extremely stable -- acts as a barrier for surface processes -- changes in salinity or temperature are very small. Sunlit zone -- The uppermost layer of the world's oceans is bathed in sunlight during the daytime.
9. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal to the boundary between the two media.
10. Absorption: the process or action by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another.
11. Scattering: the process in which electromagnetic radiation or particles are deflected or diffused.
12. Light and sound are wave energies.
13. Photic zone is the depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.
14. Aphotic zone is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight. It is formally defined as the depths beyond which less than 1% of sunlight penetrates.
15. Light can travel through space, sound cannot.
16. Higher temp, pressure, salinity results in a higher speed of sound.
17. The SOFAR channel (short