Major Theories of Crime Causation
August 4, 2013
Major Theories of Crime Causation
Various units contain a number of theories that try to explain the causes of crime in the society. The theories have been developed to have an in-depth understanding of the crime and how best they can be addressed to ensure that humans live in a conducive environment. These units and theories have been around and in use from as early as the twentieth century. Over the years, theorists and researchers have engaged their minds in trying to find answers and possibly cab the high level of crime that the world faces today (Siegel, 2010). Many of the theories developed give varying analytical statistics on the causes that lead people to commit crimes; right from common crimes to high profile criminal offenses; this study aims at discussing two theories, one from choice theories and the other from trait theories. Throughout the discussion, details will be given in support of why crimes according to the two theories under study. The study and practice of criminology investigates matters regarding crime causation and the aspects that influence unlawful delinquency. There are various theories under the umbrella of choice theories of crime, which explain factors that highly influence or cause people, to engage in criminal activities. These theories rely on login while trying to elucidate why an individual commits a crime and whether the criminal act emanates from lucid decision, interior tendency or peripheral traits. These theories influence how the law and the judicial system is structured and the functions entitled to it. Rational theory
Under the choice theory, it is important to discuss the rational theory and its contribution in understanding the causes of crime among individuals in the society. Regarding the trait theory, oppositional defiant disorder as a theory of interest will answer the most underpinning questions regarding cause of crime. The rational choice theory undertakes a practical conviction, which affirms that man is an intellectual personality who examines resources and ends, comprising expenses and profits after which an individual makes a coherent choice. Developed by Cornish, this theory aimed at assisting the thoughts about situational crime prevention. In view of this theory, an assumption is made which relays that crime is a purposive conduct created or designed to meet the reprobate`s commonplace needs; money, status, sex, and excitement. Meeting these necessities encompasses the making of elementary conclusions and choices. Key elements in this theory reveal various critical issues important for understanding the causes of crime. Studies indicate that this theory relates to the previous drift theory; people employ techniques of counterbalancing to drift in and out of delinquent behavior. Further still, there is a proposal that failure by families and extended kin groups has the effect of expanding the realm of relationships that are not under the control of the community. Thus, this further undermines governmental controls, which leads to persistent systematic crime and delinquency. Such kind of ineptitude causes and stresses social customs and social struggles, which sustain disruptive activity (Cullen, 2010). Concerning this theory, for a misconduct to transpire, three essentials must be available; an inspired lawbreaker, an obtainable and appropriate target, and no power figure to impede the offense from taking place. The theory relates the pattern of offending to daily patterns of social interaction; where in the 1980s, women left homes to work and tis led to social disintegration. This was a repetitive of parting families unattended and with lack of authority character augmented probabilities of unlawful activity. The theory has key assumptions that relate to the offender and crimes, where the offender sees himself or herself as individual. Thus, persons have...
References: Cullen, F. (2010). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Boston, CA: SAGE.
Goodwin, C. (2005). A History of Modern Psychology 2nd Edition. Hoboken, NY : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hagan, F. (2006). Introduction to Criminology: Theories, Methods, and Criminal Behavior. New York, NY: SAGE.
Siegel, L. (2010).Criminology: Theories. Boston, CA: Cengage Learning.
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