Running head: Theoretical Models
Grand Canyon University
July 6, 2010
The following paper will address four different instructional approaches, as well as the theories, which influenced each of them. It will them have a rational for way these four where chosen and how they affect the school setting.
There are many ways to teach new concepts to students. The four ways that you will read about today is the direct instruction model, cooperative learning, thematic teaching, and finally differentiated instruction. The first model that we will look at is the direct instruction model. This model may be used in many different subjects and areas. According to one of the articles, direct instruction is an explicit, scientifically based model of effective instruction, which was developed in the 1960’s by a man named Siegfried Engelmann (Adams & Engelmann, 1996). The idea behind direct instruction is to get more accomplished in less time. The one way that this can be down is by controlling the environment and how the material is taught. It is believed that within this model it is the teachers’ fault if the students did not learn, not the student’s fault for not learning what was taught. The model starts by teaching with the big idea in mind. Then the teacher needs to make sure that he or she is communicating clearly. The teachers are also to follow a clear format that is easy to be taught. They are to do this while making sure that the skills are taught in a particular sequence and assessing the students all the time, so that they know when to adjust their teaching skills. This approach may work for a majority of student, but might do better with some of the cooperative learning incorporated into this model as well. With that being said, the second model that is of interest is the cooperative learning model. There are a dozen or more researchers that have developed cooperative...
References: Adams, G. L., & Engelmann, S. (1996). Research on Direct Instruction: 25 years beyond
Allan, S. D. & Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools and classrooms.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Daniels, P. (2004). An Overview of Gardner 's multiple Intelligences, Kagan 's structures and
Tomlinson 's differentiated instruction and their correlation to Nunley 's layered curriculum
Innovative Teaching Concepts (2002). What are thematic teaching and curriculum? Retrieved
July 6, 2010
Kagan, S. (2002). Kagan structures: research and rationale in a nutshell, Kagan Online
Magazine-Spencer 's Thinkpad
Kagan, S. (2004). Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing.
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (2005). Focus on effectiveness-research-based
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