Instructional models are the overall approaches to instruction that are designed to accomplish particular instructional goals. It provides orientation on what should learn and direction on how to learn the following specific steps (procedures and structures). Instructional models differ from the specific teaching strategies or techniques in that each of these models has its own theoretical basis behind it and encompasses specific steps (syntax) that are designed to attain the desired educational outcomes. Instructional models are also designed to attain specific goals and have attributes that teaching strategies or techniques do not have. Instructional models are blueprints for teaching which provide structure and direction in planning, implementing and evaluating instruction.
A. CONCEPT LEARNING MODELS
The key concepts learned by students in a given learning area (subject) can be liked with other concepts drawn from related disciplines, thereby, enhancing the teaching-learning processes. Typical examples of these instructional models are concept formation, concept development, and concept attainment. These instructional models are supported by theorists, philosophers, and researchers like: Jean Piaget (1990)- a Swiss psychologists
David Ausubal (1963) –the founder of cognitive psychology
Jerome Brunner- an American psychologist
Lev Vygotsky (1962)- a Russian psychologist
John Dewey (1916) –an American educator and philosopher
Hilda Taba (1969)- an American educator
Hilda Taba together of her associates developed three cognitive strategies that are based on the cognitive views of learning. Their studies reveal, among others how conceptual thinking develops in children and youth and how certain approaches to concept teaching affect these learning processes. They believe that the intellect develops as individuals confront new and puzzling experiences and as they try to resolve the discrepancies posed by these experiences in the quest for understanding on how individuals link new knowledge to prior knowledge and construct new meaning (Arends, 2004)
Jean Piaget (1990), a Swiss psychologist, developed the theory of cognitive development. The theory presents that children grow and mature, they pass the steps of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational. The way concepts are learned, according to Piaget is affected by the learner’s age, language development and level of intellectual development.
David Ausubel (1962) a founder of cognitive psychology, expounded that the single most important factor influencing new learning is what the learner already knows and that any concepts is explainable at many different levels of generality. He was interested in the way knowledge is organized and how the human mind organizes ideas. To Ausubel, meaning can emerge from the materials only if they tie into existing structures of prior learning’s (Gunter, 2003).
Jerome Brunner (1962) an American psychologist and curriculum theorist, presented a concept on how children learn at different stages of maturation.
Brunner advocated three distinct modes of learning:
(1) The inactive mode (leaning by doing)
(2) The iconic mode (learning by forming mutual images)
(3) The symbolic mode (learning through a series of abstract symbols or representations) He likewise explained that as children grow older and progress through the grades, they depend less on the inactive mode and more on imaging and symbolic operation (Arends, 2004)
Lev Vygosky (1994), a Russian psychologist and a founder of modern constructivist theory development, expounded that social interaction with others spur the construction of new ideas and enhance the learner’s intellectual growth. In all likelihood, with appropriate challenges and assistance from teachers or more capable peers, students are moved forward into their zone of proximal development (Arends, 2004).
Two levels of development:
a. The level of actual...
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