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The Fall of the Roman Republic

By Beesty7 Jan 12, 2013 1390 Words
The late Roman Republic, from Gracchi through Augustus

Rome: almost complete control of Mediterranean
Senate:
* 300 members
* Nobiles: control power in Senate
* Novus homo: new member of Senate
Senator Ideologies:
1. Optimates: senators in favor of status quo (conservative-keep senate in power) 2. Populares: senators who wanted support of peoplepower is in Council of Plebs/Tribunes Reasons for the Land Problem

* The backbone of the Roman state and army was the small farmers 1. Punic Wars
* Their lands had been damaged by Hannibal invading Italy in Second Punic War 2. Long Terms
* After many years of service abroad, they found their farms deteriorated that they chose to sell their land 3. Latifundia:
* large estates owned by Senators showed extreme wealth
* Citizens coming back from Army too poor to keep up w/ farm payments * Citizens sell land; work on farm for Senator protection * # growing towards end of Republic
* # decreasing of small citizen farmers
Equestrian ("Knights") Order: "merchant class"; worked on GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS * Noticeably rich
* Will eventually want power
* Barred from Senate ==> can't be Senator AND do Gov. contracts 133 B.C.: King of Pergamum gives Rome his kingdom =>Romans now in ASIA Tiberius Gracchus (133 B.C.):
* Member of nobiles
* A tribune of plebs
* Saw decline in # of citizen farmers as underlying cause of Rome’s problems * Growing number of landless poor
* Army: requires ownership of land ==> Army in danger! * Plan: LAND REDISTRIBUTION!!
* It authorized the Gov. to reclaim public land held by large landowners and to distribute it to the landless Romans * Rich (senators): disliked plan
* Assassinated!
Gaius Gracchus:
* Brother of Tiberius
* Elected tribune
* Continues land-redistribution
* Gives EQUESTRIANS power
* Puts them on the jury
* Makes new provinces (ASIA); puts them as governors (tax collectors) * Assassinated also!
Marius: reformer of the Army
* An equestrian, became consul
* Consul 7 times
* Elected General (fought Jugurtha in North Africa and the Numidians) * Brought Jugurthine war to a conclusion
* Then fought Celtic tribes and won
Military Reforms:
1. Draft urban and rural proletariat as well as land-less men => payment: land (at end of war) a. Loyalty to generals for land
2. Soldier allied w/ GENERAL
3. Legion structure:
i) 6 Centuries: led by centuriates
ii) Cohort: 10 in Republic (contain 600 men)
The Italian or Social War
* Italian allies revolted because felt they had not shared in the lands and bonuses given to Roman veterans * Romans ended it by granting full rights of Roman citizenship to all free Italians Sulla:

* Member of nobiles
* Made consul
* Command of war against Mithradates
* King of Pontus in Asia Minor who rebelled against Roman power * Council of Plebs transfers command to Marius
* Sulla is angry!!
* He marched on Rome with an army and Marius fled
* Marius joined forces with consul Cinna and seized control * Outlawed Sulla and killed his supporters
* Marius died and Sulla returned to Rome after defeating Mithradates * He seized Rome and forced senate to make him Dictator * Sulla FORCED SENATE: new dictator; reforms
1. Proscription list: "Most Wanted" => land is payment a. In order to kill Marius supporters
2. Restore Power to Senate
b. Put senators back in jury courts
c. Enlarged senate by adding equestrians
3. Land for soldiers
4. Freed some slaves => if master is on list; FREE
5. Assemblies = POWERLESS
6. Tribune = REDUCED
7. Revised law
* Approx. 7 months: gave up power peacefully
Crassus:
* Ran private fire department; very rich
* Fought for Sulla and became rich
* Had command against slave rebellion led by Spartacus
Pompey:
* Also fought for Sulla
* Had command in Spain=hailed military hero!
Crassus + Pompey Consuls:
* Undid Sulla’s work
* Restored power to tribunes
* Put equites back on jury courts
* Pompey cleared Mediterranean Sea of the pirates
* Pompey was put in charge of campaign against Mithradates-Won! Cicero:
* Equestrian
* Consul, powerful political force as orator
* Suppressed conspiracy led by Catiline
* Wants cooperation w/ equestrians and senators-“Concord of the orders” * Supports Pompey’s military
* Senate thought otherwise and said Pompey was too powerful * Declined his wishes after his return from the east Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.):
* Famous from personal Spanish conquest
* Wanted t run for consul when he came back but was denied * Turned to join with Crassus and Pompey
* 1st Triumvirate
1st Triumvirate: Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus
* Caesar was elected consul
* Achieve basic aims
* Pompey received eastern settlement and lands for his veterans * Equestrian allies of Crassus got tax reduction
* Caesar got special command in Gaul
* Crassus and Pompey become consuls again
* Caesar was given an extension in Gaul
* He wins and gains loyalty from his veterans
* Crassus got command in Syria
* Fought with Parthenes and died
* Left Pompey and Caesar to fight for power!
* Pompey got command in Spain
* Senate sees Pompey and Caesar as a threat and wanted both to lay down their commands * Senate soon sides with Pompey (LESS OF THREAT)
* Senate: demanded Caesar to return to Rome w/out his army * Caesar fears this would leave him vulnerable to his enemies Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (49 B.C.):
* Caesar doesn’t disband army; crosses into Italy
* Pompey unprepared for army; flees to Greece
* Caesar takes control builds up navy to catch Pompey * Battle of Pharsalus (48 B.C.): Caesar beats Pompey
* Pompey flees to Egypt and was killed
* 47 B.C.: Caesar is dictator 45 B.C.: “Dictator for life” Caesar’s Reforms:
1. Enlarges Senate to 900 members
a. Filling it with his followers
2. Increases citizenship to people in provinces who helped him 3. Establishes “Colonies of Romans” in his provinceshelps Romanization of urban areas 4. Standardized city Gov. (council, administrator, mayor, etc.) 5. Switched to Egyptian Solar calendar (“Julian calendar”) 6. Avenges Crassus and fights Parthians

44 B.C.: Senators assassinated Caesar w/ goal of restoring republic (Ides of March) by now GOV. is oligarchy anyway (Senators control) =====================================================================

2nd Triumvirate: Mark Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus
* Octavian= heir to Caesar and his adopted son/grandnephew * Mark Antony= Caesar’s ally and assistant
* Marcus Lepidus= commander of Caesar’s cavalry
* Reforms
* Restored Sulla’s policy of proscription
* Pursued Caesar’s assassins
* Defeated them at Philippi in Macedonia
* Lepidus: knocked off; home arrest for rest of his life
* Mark/Octavian: split Empire in half
* Mark: got Easter (richer) part married Octavian’s sister (sign of bond between both leaders) * Octavian: West (Italy; administrative)
* Mark joins w/ Cleopatra VII
* Divorces Octavian’s sister
* Shows split between the two
* Octavian uses propaganda VS Antony; fights him
* Battle of Actium in Greece (31 B.C.): Octavian wins
* Antony/Cleopatra flees early in battle; both eventually commit suicide * Wins easily
* Octavian = AUGUSTUS!
Rule of Augustus Caesar:
* Alone as sole ruler: needs to reform
* Enemy: SENATE
* Chose to WORK w/ Senate keep them pleased
* Princeps: “first citizen”; title Augustus used as ruler (shows “loyalty” to REPUBLIC) co-ruler with Senate * Was consul for a few years; gave it back to SENATE
* Imperium maius imperium
* Was tribune
* Became censor controlled Senate (had power to kick senators out) * Army Reform:
* Increases army in size
* 28 Legions
* Served 20 years
* Recruited from citizenry
* Auxiliaries
* Recruited from noncitizens
* Served 24 years
* Received citizenship
* Praetorian guard
* Elite troops guarded the princeps
* Served 16 years
* Recruited from Roman citizens
* Provinces:
* Senatorial: provinces controlled by Senate; senators appoint governors * Augustus’: personal territories; appoints legates (officials) to run areas (*IMPORTANT: he was using the old forms of Republican government; YET increases his own personal power*) * Expansion:

* N. Africa: under control (no more Carthage)
* Spain: NW regions finally under control
* Near East: under control got rid of Parthenes (Iraq) * N. Europe: next big conquest
* Expanded to Rhine River (W. edge of Germany)
* Slowly moves into Germany goal
* 3 legions get slaughtered; back off
* IMPORTANT IN FUTURE; couldn’t get rid of threat * Social Classes (Highest-Lowest): could move up if met wealth requirement 1. Senators: powerful, exclusive (600 families), 1,000,000+ land’s worth 2. Equestrians: lower gov. ranks, rich, 400,000+ land’s worth 3. Citizens: bulk of people, poorer the “lower/middle classes” Final Reforms:

* Religion:
* 12 B.C.: princeps takes over role as pontifex maximus (head priest of state religion) * Goal: to make more people committed to state/state beliefs * Morales:
* Rome becoming more immoralold virtues falling apart * Low birth rate
* Adultery
* Augustus wanted family values
* Heavy tax on being a bachelor, widow, or couple with fewer than 3 children * Made adultery illegal
* Sets example by exiling his daughter, Julia, for adultery Dies: 14 A.D.

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