The communication process
1. Source (the sender)
The source of a communication event is usually a person attempting to send a spoken, written, sign language, or nonverbal message to another person or person. The perceived authority and experience of the sender are important factors in influencing how much attention the message will receive. 2. Message
The heart of a communication event is the message, which is a purpose or an idea to be conveyed. Many factors influence how a message is received. Among them are clarity, the alertness of the receiver, the complexity and length of the message. How the information is organized. The production manager’s message will most likely get across if she says directly. “I need to talk to you about last month’s below-average productivity figures”. 3. Channel (medium)
Several communication channels, or media are usually spoken for sending messages in organizations. Typically, messages are written, spoken, or a combination of written and spoken. Some kind of nonverbal cue, such as smile or hand gesture, accompanies most spoken messages, heavy reliance is now placed on electronic transmission of messages. In the production manager’s case, she has chosen to drop by the team leader’s office and deliver her message in a serious tone. 4. Receiver
A communication event can be complete only when another party receives the message and understands it properly. In the example under examination, the team leader is the receiver. Perceptual distortions of various types (as described in chapter 3) act as filters that can prevent a message from being received as intended by the sender. If the team leader is worried that his job is at stake, he might get defensive when he hears the production manager’s message. 5. Feedback
Without feedback, it is difficult to know whether a message has been received and understood. The feedback step also includes the reactions of the receiver. If the receiver takes action as intended by the sender, the message has been received satisfactorily. The production manager will know that her message got across if the team leader say’s “OK, when would you like to review last month’s production figures?” Effective interpersonal communication therefore involves an exchange of messages between two people. The two communicators take turns being receiver and sender. 6. Environment
A full understanding of communication requires knowledge of the environment in which messages are transmitted and received. The organizational culture is a key environmental factor that influences communication. It is easier to transmit controversial messages when trust and respect are high than when they are low. Also, in some organizations workers hesitate to bring negative results to the attention of management for fear of being reprimanded 7. Noise
Distractions such as noise have a pervasive influence on the components of the communication process. In this context noise is anything that disrupts communication, including the attitudes and emotion of the receiver. Noise includes work stress, fear , ambivalence and strong advocacy for an opposing position. In a more literal sense, the whir of machinery, piped-in music, and the chatting of coworkers with each other and on cell phones are also examples noise in the workplace.
e-mail has two major impacts on interpersonal communication. First written messages have replaced many telephone and in-person interchanges. With the majority of office workers being connected by e-mail networks. Group members often keep in regular contact with one another without having lengthy meetings or telephone conversations. Second, people receive many more messages than they did by paper and telephone. Many managers and professionals process over 100 e-mail messages per day E-mail facilitates communication in many ways, including people in various parts of the world exchanging information without worrying about trying to connect through...
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