EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION INTRA AND EXTRA LABORATORY
DATE: 24 APRIL 2012
Table Of Contents
1. The communication process
3. Types of Communication
based on expression
4. Types of communication bases on flow
Internal vs external communication
6. What are the barriers to effective communication?
9-11 7. Elements of effective communication
8. Cross-cultural Communication
What is effective communication?
Communication is the very basic need of any organization and any individual. An organization is unable to exist, function effectively or achieve its objectives without it. Through communication people are brought together as it establishes commonness amongst people. Individuals communicate 75% of their working time, while an organization communicates 90% of its working time (Srivastava, 2011).
As noted by Srivastava (2011) defining communication has been via many theorists, as the word has multiple meanings, ie; According to W.H.Newman, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”
Dr. Dalton McFarland says, “Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings.”
Even though managers spend a majority of their time communicating, an assumption that meaningful communication had taken place cannot be made. Many believe that once a memorandum, letter, fax, or e-mail has been sent, communication has taken place. Nonetheless, communication only occurs until information and understanding have passed between sender and the intended receiver (Guo & Sanchez, 2005).
According to Guo & Sanchez (2005) being understood is a vital part of effective communication. The Interpretation of messages may differ among people, thus if the idea received is not the one intended, communication has not taken place.
Thus, the role of communication is to bring all the aspects of business together - manufacturer, employees, customers, suppliers, agencies, distributors.
1. The Communication Process
The process of communication is a complete returning cycle. It’s a two way process as the exchange of ideas link the sender and the receiver towards a mutually agreed direction (Srivastava, 2011).
Srivastava (2011) notes the communication process steps are as follows:
Sender: The person has an idea and wants to convey it to the receiver. Thus, the person with ideas to share is called sender. The process begins with the sender.
Encoding: Is the translation of the idea into message by verbal or non-verbal methods. Emphasis is placed on how the message is interpreted. This process of converting the thought of the sender into message is encoding.
Message: Is the content that the sender wants to carry across. A thought, idea, emotion or anything that the sender wants to convey is called message. It can be verbal or non-verbal.
Channel: The means by which the message is sent is called channel. Channel can written, oral or non-verbal.
Receiver: Is the person who assigns meaning to the conveyed message.
Decoding: During this process the received message is converted into understanding.
Feedback: Is the last part of the communication process. After receiving the message, the receiver responds to the sender. The basis of the response is either perfect understanding of the message or the misunderstanding thereof. This response from receiver to sender is called feedback. The importance of feedback establishes success or failure of communication.
Feedback is defined in the above section. It can be information...
References: Bappi, O. (2011). What are the barriers to effective communication? [web log post].
Retrieved April 22, 2012 from http://communication- business.blogspot.com/
Guo, K. (2005). Workplace Communication. (pp. 77-110). Retrieved April 20. 2012
Srivastava, M. (2011). Communication skills. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from http://
Principles of communication. (n.d.). internal and external. Retrieved April 21, 2012
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