The Axial and Appendicular System

Topics: Skull, Skeletal system, Vertebra Pages: 5 (648 words) Published: June 18, 2013
The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton

Laszlo Vass, Ed.D. Version 42-0021-00-01

Lab RepoRt assistant

This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.


● What is the purpose of this exercise?

Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken.

Exercise 1: The Skull

A. Name the eight bones of the cranium.
Frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid

B. What function do the cranial bones serve?
To protect the sensory organs and the brain.

C. List the bones that form the eye orbit.
Zygomatic, maxilla, lacrimal, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and palatine.

D. Examine the skull on the skeleton model and describe some ways in which the mandible is different from the other bones of the skull.
The shape is different. It is attached to a joint and can move unlike the others.

E. Other than the skull, what are the other two components of the axial skeleton?
Vertebral column and thoracic cage.

Exercise 2: Skull Markings

A. Which bone is palpated when touching the forehead?

Frontal bone.

B. What bone is palpated when touching the temple?

Temporal bone.

Exercise 3: The Vertebral Column

A. What are the five categories of vertebrae in your vertebral column? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccyx.
B. Why are lumbar vertebrae particularly prone to injury?
The stress of lifting and moving with our upper body.

C. What is an intervertebral disc? What is its function?

They are fibrocartilage discs that are designed to cushion the vertebrae and serve as “shock absorbers” for the column.

D. How are the sacrum and coccyx different from the other vertebrae?
They consist of multiple bones fused together.

E. What is the overall function of vertebrae?
It is the bodies major support mechanism. It protects the spinal cord and nerves from damage.

Exercise 4: The Bony Thorax

A. What bones make up the bony thorax?

Sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae.

B. What is the function of the bony thorax?
It creates a protective barrier for the organs within.

C. What category of bones are the sternum and ribs?

Flat bones.

D. Why are ribs 11 and 12 referred to as “floating” ribs?

They are indirectly attached to the sternum by shared cartilage.

E. Propose a reason why the ribs are attached anteriorly by cartilage.
For posture support.

Exercise 5: The Appendicular Skeleton

A. What is the pelvic girdle? What is its function?

It is formed by two coxal bones. They withstand stress of weight and movement. It attaches the lower
appendages to the skeleton.

B. What is the pectoral girdle? What is its function?

It consists of the scapula and the clavicle. It attaches the upper appendages to the skeleton and is a major
attachment for the major muscles of the neck and trunk.

C. Name the bones of the upper appendages (arm, forearm and hand)....
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