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Skeletal System Study Guide

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Skeletal System Study Guide
Skeletal System Study Guide – Use the lecture folder to help you answer these questions. The more detail you add, the better prepared for the test you will be.

1. What are the functions of the skeleton?

• Support

• Movement

• Protection

• Mineral storage

• Blood cell synthesis

2. What is the difference between osteoclasts and osteoblasts?

Osteoclasts cause the bone tissue to break down and release calcium into the blood stream. When the calcium levels reach a high level then the osteoblasts come in and form blood tissue and reducing the calcium in the blood.

3. How many bones do we have in our body? There are 206 bones in the body.

4. What do bones need in order to be healthy?

Exercise, Vitamin D, Vitamin A, Vitamin C

5. Differentiate between tendons, ligaments and joints.

• Tendons connect muscle to the bone

• Ligaments connect bone to bone

• Joints are the meeting point of two or more bones

6. What are the 2 main divisions of the skeletal system? Differentiate between the 2 and what bones are within each.

• The two divisions are Axial and Appendicular.

• Axial is the skeleton of the skull itself and it’s different parts. Appendicular is the parts that attach to the Axial skeleton.

7. Give the four general categories of bones and their descriptions.

• Long bone

• Short bone

• Irregular bone

• Flat bone

8. What is the most commonly broken bone in the body? The clavicle bone

9. What are the cranial bones? There are eight of them they are the bones that protect the brain. They are Ethmoid bone, Frontal bone, Occipital bone, two Parietal bones, Sphenoid bone, two temporal bones.

10. What are sutures (of the skeletal system) and give 2 examples? Sutures are the joints between the bones of the skull. There is the Coronal suture and the Squamous suture.

11. How many facial bones are there? What are they? There are 14 facial bones. 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae, 2 lacrimal bones 2 maxillae, mandible, 2 nasal bones, 2 palatine bones, vomer, 2 zygomatic bones.

12. What are the 3 parts of the sternum? The manubrium, gladiolus, and xiphoid process.

13. How many ribs do we have? Differentiate between the 3 categories of ribs. All humans have 24 ribs and the three categories are True ribs, False ribs and floating ribs

14. How many bones make up the vertebral column and what are the five categories of vertebrae? There are 33 bones in the vertebral column they are coccyxgenal, lumbar, thoracic, cervical, and sacrum

15. What do the curves of the spine allow?

16. What are the functions of the vertebral column? Protection of the spinal cord, attachment for muscles, ribs and other structures, Supports the head and other things and still allows movement.

17. What are the main bones of the arm, forearm and hand? Humerus, ulna and radius and carpals.

18. Where are the femur, tibia and fibula? Femur is the thighbone, Tibia is the shinbone, Fibula is the parallel of the tibia.

19. What are the similarities between the hands and feet as far as the bones are concerned? They both have Phalanges

20. What is the primary function of the pectoral girdle? The pectoral girdle provides for muscular attachment that move the arm

21. List some of the bones found in the pectoral girdle. There are two scapulae bones and two clavicles

22. What are the functions of the pelvic girdle? Support and movement of the lower body.

23. What bones make up the pelvic girdle? Two ossa coxae

24. How and why are the pelvic girdles different between men and women? The pelvic girdle in a woman would be smaller because of the fact that the muscles attached are much smaller than a man’s. In return, women have wider and more shallow hips than men.

25. What are the structural classes of joints and how do they differ? Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial

26. What are the functional classes of joints and how do they differ? What are the different types of movement? Synarthroses is not mobile , Amphiathroses is slightly more mobile , Diarthroses very mobile

27. What is the difference between a hinge, gliding, ball and socket and pivot joint? Give an example of each.

• Hinge is the bending in one plane of motion ex- the elbow

• Gliding is the movement in any direction ex- carpal and tarsal bones

• Ball-and-Socket is a part fits in with another for a rotational movement ex

28. What are the main ligaments of the knee? Collaterals, Cruciates, Patellar ligament

29. How is rheumatoid arthritis different from osteoarthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune attack on joint linings, while osteoarthritis is due to aging it is a degenerative joint disease

30. Differentiate between a sprain and strain.

A strain is an over stretch while a sprain is the forcible wrenching of a joint with partial rupture.

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