Technology, Environment and Society

Topics: Air pollution, Greenhouse gas, Pollution Pages: 28 (5109 words) Published: February 24, 2014
Technology, Environment and Society

Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.)
Year/Part: IV/II
Program: Computer and Electronics

Definitions

Technology

According to Webster’s dictionary, technology is defined as a description of arts.

General definition of technology

Technology is technical means, which involves the systematic application of organized knowledge, and tools and materials for the extension of human facilties.

Technology is the source of change in society.

Technological innovation
Creative. feasible ideas
Practical application
Diffusion through society

Environment

Environment is defined as the immediate surroundings which supports life and sustains various human activities. The surroundings comprises of Biotic or living things: plants, animals, microorganisms

Abiotic or non-living things: land, water, air etc.

Society

Society is people living together in communities.

Chapter 1. Brief History of Technology

Beginnings (from beginning to 3000BC)

Universe: Evolution theory: Big bang theory, 10 to 20 billion years ago

Solar system: Sun at the centre and eight planets, age of sun: about 5 billion years

Earth and life: some facts
Third planet that orbit the sun
Formed from cloud of dust and gas drifting through space about 4.6 billion years ago. First primitive life: algae and bacteria appeared around 3.4 billion years ago. Human being
Separation of human lineage from primates: about 2 million years ago. Modern human (homosapiens) appeared in Africa around 100,000 years ago. Beginning of human civilization: about 5000 years ago

Stone Age
Age prior to the beginning of civilized society (up to 3000BC) Tools: stone, wood, animal bone, horn
No use of metal tools
Potter’s wheel (around 6500BC)
Nomadic culture: Humans moved from one place to another place searching for the foods At the end, more settled

1.1 Civilizations between 3000BC to 1660 AD

a. First civilizations (3000 BC to 1100 BC)

Bronze Age
Cupper: First discovered metal
Bronze (Mixture of Cu and Tin): Second discovered metal

Sequences
By 4000BC, quasi-civilized society in Egypt and Mesopotamia Around 3000 BC: human civilization began.

Civilizations
a. Egyptian civilization: in the valley of Nile
b. Sumerian civilization: in plain of Tigris and Euphrates in Southern Mesopotamia c. Assyrian civilization: in upper Tigris
d. Maya civilization: in Peru
e. Civilizations in China
f. Civilizations in India: Flourishing of Hindu religion in India, Vedas and Upanishad g. First Babylonian empire
Semitic (dark white or brownish people from Syria and Arabia) people conquered Sumeria by 2750BC, made Babylon the capital Hammurabi: 6th king of Babylonia, made code of laws, which is first written code of laws h. Jews (Hebrews)

Semitic people settled in Judea long before 1000 B.C.
Hebrew Bible (Old testament) around 1000 BC
Prophets of Jews: Abraham, Mosses
Solomon: king of Hebrew Monarchy, builder of the first temple in Jerusalem i. Spreading of Aryans
Tribes of fair and blue eyed Nordic race
Spread from central Europe to Asia
Inventions/ Developments during Bronze age
Discovery of bronze, Metal working, Glass working
Invention of Potato in Peru
Animal domestication: cattle, sheep, goats and asses
Cultivation
Navigation technology
Techniques of Yoga and meditation
Invention of first writing system (wage-shaped) by Sumerians Invention of picture writing system by Egyptians
Invention of Semitics writing system by Hebrews by mixing Sumerian and Egyptian writing All other major languages, e.g. Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, French, Arabic etc. derived from Semitics Construction of cities, temples, tombs, systematic irrigation, war chariots

b. Iron Age (1100 BC to 500 AD)

First use of iron for implements and weapons.

Historical sequences in Iron Age
a. Gautam Buddha (nearly 550 BC)
b. Confucius and Lao Tse in China (around 6th century BC)
c. Emperor Ashoka in India:...
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