Frederick Winslow Taylor’s and Henry Fayol’s Philosophy: An Overview Introduction
This essay introduce the Taylor’s philosophy, also called Taylorism and Scientific Management, and Fayol’s Philosophy, also called Fayolism and Administrative Management about their foundation, development, main content, effectiveness as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The difference between these two kinds of management theory would be indicated below. Taylor’s Philosophy
Scientific management is a theory focusing on optimizing and simplifying jobs to efficiently increase productivity. It is also called Taylorism, based on the US engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who published The Principles of Scientific Management in 1909, where he believed scientifically optimizing the working way was more productive than making labour work as hard as they could. One of the essential elements of Taylor’s Philosophy is scientific decision making (Edwin A. Locke, 1982, pp.14-22), which is proposed in contrast to the traditional unscientific management and rule of thumb. Another important element of Taylor’s Philosophy is to advocate the mental revolution and the interest consistency between the labour and manager. Frederick Winslow Taylor, the classical managerialist of America, developed the scientific management in the early of 20th century. Therefore, people regarded him as the father of scientific management and also named this thought Taylorsim, named after Frederick Winslow Taylor. His theory is influencing and accepted in modern management as well. It has a micro-approach, which is focusing on determining and optimizing the productivity of individual jobs rather than overall organization (Bruno Dyck，Mitchell Neubert,2009,p.39), because it is restricted to factory only. Since Taylor stranded from the supervisory viewpoint and tried to increase productivity at operation level, he spent many efforts to study how to improve efficiency and eliminate various types of waste, including time and money, by the scientification and standardization methods. From the Taylor’s Principles of scientific management, it is obvious that all of them considered more on individual product. For example, Taylor proposed that scientifically select workers, provide them the standard operation method and workflow were beneficial for the growth of workers. There is no doubt that the productivity would be improved but the improvement of critical thinking of workers is not enough. Therefore, this micro-approach is suitable for the factory which does not require much of creativity and critical thinking. On the other hand, as I mentioned above, it is obvious that these principles are restricted to production activities. Taylor also demonstrated the idea of “time and motion”, which separate a job into several individual parts and respectively assign them to the workers respectively. Then, each of workers just needs to pay attention to their own task. This kind of streamline operation of distribution was indeed beneficial to mass production of goods. Therefore, the scope of Taylor’s philosophy would be production activities only. Needless to say, the first advantage of Taylor’s philosophy is that it is extremely emphasises the efficiency. To be more specific, it considered standing from a management strategy that managers focus on decision making and planning while workers are merely responsible for order execution by streamlined operation. Research and experimentation indicated this method achieve a pretty high efficiency. The second advantage of scientific management is administrative, which is beneficial from the standardization of product. Replaced the rule of thumb and improper method, Taylor made a great contribution to standardization for the design and use of tools and method. The most efficient workflow and tools are determined according to the provided specification and the latest technology. Based on the standard, the quality and efficiency of...
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