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Test #1 Review: Chapters 1, 2, & 3

Chapter 1. Describing life and science

1. Which is the correct sequence for levels of biological organization within an organism?
• Atom-molecule-organelle-cell-tissue

2. Which is the correct sequence for levels of biological organization occurring beyond the individual?
• Population-community-ecosystem-biosphere

3. To be considered a living organism, the organism must consist of
• one or more cells

4. Which is not a required characteristic of life?

5. “The most restrictive taxon” and “the ability to breed only among themselves” reference
• members of the same species

6. The four kingdoms included in the domain Eukarya are
• Protista-fungi-Plantae-and Animalia

7. Which of the following would not be a control in an experimental procedure?
• An experimental group

8. A theory differs from a hypothesis in that a theory
• has more supportive evidence than a hypothesis, is broader in scope than a hypothesis, has predictive power, and ties together many existing observations

9. An ecosystem would include all of the following except
• a biosphere

10. Homeostasis means that
• conditions inside a cell or organism remain within a constant range

11. The correct sequence going from smallest to largest is
• Atom-molecule-organelle-cell-tissue

12. All ecosystems
• need a continuous outside energy source

13. Which is a correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
• Observation – form hypothesis – design an experiment – collect data

14. In an experiment, which of the following is not generally a true statement?
• The smaller the sample size the more meaningful the results

Chapter 2. Chemistry of life

15. The primary elements making up living organisms are
• Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus (CHOSNP)

16. The mass number is defined as a total number of ______ of an atom
• protons and neutrons

17. If an atom has a valence shell that is full it is
• chemically stable

18. in a covalent bond, atoms
• share electrons

19. in an ionic bond, atoms
• of opposite charges attract each other

20. In the example of ionic bond formation between sodium and chlorine, which of the following is not true statement?
• Chlorine donates an electron

21. In the example of ionic bond formation between sodium and chlorine,
• Chlorine excepts an electron

22. If a covalent bond is polar
• one of the atoms has a partial negative charge

23. A hydrogen bond
• May occur between molecules

24. in a chemical equation
• the reactants are on the left of the yield arrow

25. An acid
• is a chemical that adds hydrogen ions to a solution

26. a substance having a pH of 2 would best be described as
• a strong acid

27. a substance having a pH of 6 would best be described as
• a weak acid

28. A substance having a pH of 7 would best be described as
• Neutral

29. A substance having a pH of 13 would best be described as
• a strong base

30. organic molecules are defined as chemical compound that contain
• carbon and hydrogen

31. the four major groups of organic compounds are
• carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid

32. A process by which cells build larger molecules from monomers is
• dehydration synthesis

33. a process by which cells breakdown polymers down into smaller units is
• hydrolysis

34. Which is not a lipid?
• A starch molecule

35. a primary building block (monomer) of protein is
• an amino acid

36. A primary block (monomer) of nucleic acid is
• a nucleotide

37. Water is best described as which of the following?
• A polar molecule

38. Individual water molecules bind to each other through
• hydrogen bonds

39. within a single molecule of water, ______ bonds are formed between oxygen and hydrogen
• covalent

40. you can painlessly Wade into a pool, but doing a belly flop off the high diving board hurts because of
• cohesion in water

41. trees take up water hundreds of feet away by
• adhesion

42. sugars (CH2O)n dissolved well in water because sugars form _____ bonds with water
• hydrogen

43. Many digestive enzymes are hydrolases. What do these enzymes have in common?
• They use water to break bonds in polymers

44. _____ Bonds are formed between monomers to form a polymer
• Covalent

45. In making beer, barley is partially fermented to produce malt. Barley is not sweet, but the malt is. What is the best explanation for this observation?
• The fermentation breaks starch in the barley down into simple sugars in the malt

46. the polymers with the most complex and diverse three-dimensional structure are
• proteins

47. How are the monomers in proteins joined?
• Peptide bonds between amino acids

48. Which question can evolution not explain?
• How life started on earth

49. the chemical formula for glucose is
• C6H12O6

Chapter 3. Cells
50. The original three tenants of the cell theory are:
• all organisms are made of one or more cells, the cell is the fundamental unit of life, and all cells come from pre-existing cells

51. the primary structural component of a cell membrane is a (an)
• phospholipid molecule

52. A phospholipid molecules has
• a hydrophilic head that is attracted to water

53. a cell membrane is not
• a rigid structure

54. A prokaryotic cell
• does not have a nucleus

55. A eukaryotic cell
• has membrane bounded organelles

56. The three domains in the Woese system of classification are
• Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

57. Kingdoms in the domain Eukarya include
• Animalia, Plantae, and Protista

58. The cell wall of bacteria
• helps prevent the cell from bursting, protects the cell, contains peptidoglycan, and gives the bacterium a distinctive shape

59. penicillin halts bacterial infections
• by interfering with the construction of the cell wall

60. members of Archaea are often referred to as extremophiles because a living conditions of extreme
• temperature, salinity, and heat

61. The theory of Endosymbiosis is based on
• the knowledge that chloroplasts and mitochondria resemble bacteria

62. And organelle found in plant cells and some members of the kingdom Protista but not an animal cells is the
• Chloroplast

63. The most common organelle in most eukaryotic cells is the
• Nucleus

64. In most mammals the DNA found in mitochondria is inherited from
• the mother only

65. A cytoskeleton is
• a structure that aids in the process of cell division, found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, a system of tracks used for intracellular transport, and composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

66. A structure found in prokaryotic cells, plant cells, and animal cells is a
• Ribosomes

67. You discover new life form and study it under an electron microscope. You find that he has no organelles, a peptidoglycan cell wall, and fatty acids in its plasma membrane. You conclude that the new life form is in which domain
• Bacteria

68. When phospholipids are mixed with water their _____ interact with water and their _____ are repelled, forming a lipid bilayer.
• Hydrophilic heads; hydrophobic tails

69. In order for a milk protein to be secreted, it's mRNA must first be translated on ribosomes
• attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum

70. In order for milk protein to be secreted, it must be moved between organelles
• in spheres of lipid layer called vesicles

71. Unlike most organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria contain
• ribosomes and DNA

72. A wild duck needs a steady supply of energy to be able to fly for hours and has dark breast meat. Domesticated chickens rarely fly and have white breast meat. As a result you would expect to find _____ in the breast muscles of wild ducks than domesticated chickens
• more mitochondria

73. How do sperm move to fertilize eggs?
• With flagella made of microtubules

74. When a scientist mutated the MreB and Mbl genes what did they mutate?

75. Which of the following are among the functions of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
• Bind cells together and give cell shape and structure (helps in cell division)

76. Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles that arise from the
• Golgi apparatus

77. The lysosomes contain _____ enzymes
• Hydrolytic

78. Which of the following cells will be expected to contain the most active lysosomes?
• Phagocytosis white blood cells

79. Which domain do Protista belong to
• Eukarya

80. Plant cells do not contain contractile vacuoles. What happens when the watered the freshwater (hypotonic to their cells)?
• The cells swell

81. Contractile vacuoles take up water when the cell cytoplasm becomes to dilute. What is one underlying assumption behind this statement?
• There is some mechanisms for the cell to measure the concentration of its cytoplasm

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