Stress and Stress Management in the Workplace
The purposes of this paper it to examine Stress and Stress Management in the workplace and to propose possible methods in preventing, reducing and coping with such stressors. It will also cover the motivating performance through job design. It is experienced that well designed jobs can have a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and the quality of performance. There are several methods and techniques that can be offered by the employer and practiced by employees facing difficulties at work. Empowerment is a potential buffer against the stress involved in service roles, but its advantages may depend on the service provider’s desire to be empowered. The most commonly definitions of stress may be categorized into three types. The first type is stimulus-based which considers stress as a situational or environmental based stimulus, impinging on the person. The second type is response-based, defining stress as an individual’s psychological or physiological response to environmental/ situational forces. The third definition, which is adopted for the purposes of the present study, applies an interactive approach often called the stressor-strain approach. It brings together the concepts put forward in the first two definitions in the sense that it defines stress as both the stimulus (source of stress or stressor) and the response (outcome or manifestation of stress or strain). Theories based on this definition are usually considered to be superior since they offer a more “complete” view of the dynamics of stress and can account for documented differential experiences within a single situation (Vakola & Nikolaou, 2005). The APA survey found three quarters of people have experienced physical symptoms as a result of stress, such as headache, fatigue, and an upset stomach in combination with feelings of irritability, anger, nervousness, and lack of motivation. Stress at work is a well-known aspect for low motivation and morale, decline in performance, high turnover and sick-leave, accidents, low job satisfaction, low quality products and services, poor internal communication and conflicts. Stress can significantly affect physical health. The stress people are experiencing comes, in part, from the pressures of today's connected world. Due to the excessive use of e-mail, cell phones and the Internet, Americans are finding it increasingly difficult to switch off from the stresses of the workplace and concentrate on their personal priorities--over half of respondents said that job demands interfered with family or home responsibilities (APA - American Psychological Association, 2012). Job stress affects both men and women, although there are some gender differences in certain aspects. A report in 2005 found the odds of association of cumulative job stress with poor mental health conditions like anxiety, depression, and chronic fatigue among women to be 1.4 to 7.1, compared to 1.8 to 4.6 for men. In general, women are more likely than men to experience physical symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, irritability, headaches and depression. Women are also more likely than men to cope with job stress with unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits. For working women, caregiving and balancing work/life issues is a significant stressor. Well over half of the caregivers in the United States are women and 59 percent are also employed (Health Advocate Inc, 2012). In today’s society women are wearing multiple hats in order to provide for their families. Many women are wives, mothers, full-time employees, some are students and others might all double as caretaker for aging parents. People in stressful environments generally face unachievable job demands, experience different bodily reactions, such as headache, back pain, or even thirst, and have various subjective feelings, such as dissatisfaction, unhappiness, sadness, and depression (Leung & Chan, 2011). Workhealth.org also adds...
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