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Bangladesh University of Textiles

Submitted to
Dr. Mohammed Mizanur
Department of Applied
Chemistry and Chemical
University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Presented By
Md. Ariful Islam
MBA In Textile Program
Bangladesh University of
ID: 2013-3-5-020


Solid waste are wastes that are not liquid or gaseous
The term solid waste means :
Material such as household garbage, food wastes, yard wastes, and demolition or construction debris


Solid wastes are all the discarded solid materials from municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities

Objective Of Solid Waste
The objective of solid wastes management to control, collect, process, dispose of solid wastes in an economical way consistent with the public health protection

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public

Definition Of
Municipal Solid
Waste (MSW)

All wastes, resulting from population, residential and non residential buildings, as well as transport vehicles
Municipal solid waste (MSW) commonly known as: trash or garbage refuse or rubbish

Sources Of Textile Waste
Majority of textile waste comes from household sources. Average lifetime of any clothing is deemed to be for about 3 years, afer which, they are thrown away as old clothes. Sometimes even 'not so worn garments ' are also discarded as they become unfashionable, or undesirable. These are post-consumer waste that goes to jumble sales and charitable organizations. Most recovered household textiles coming to these organizations, are sold or donated. The remaining ones go to either a textile recovery facility or the landfll.
Textile waste also arise during yarns and fabric manufacturing, apparel-making processes and from the retail industry. They are the post-industrial waste. Apart from these textile wastes other wastes such as PET botles etc. are also used for recycling polyester fber.

Sewage treatment residue

Dead animal s

Industrial waste Type Of


Rubbi sh Demoliti on Wastes

Construction waste It is estimated that solid waste generated in small, medium and large cities and towns is about 0.1 kg, 0.3 –
0.4 kg and 0.5 kg per capita per day respectively Quantity Of
Municipal Solid
Waste (MSW) In

Total municipal solid waste (MSW) collected in the country increased every year The average per capita generation has increased from 0.67 kg/person/day in
2001 to 0.8 kg/person/day in 2005

In 2008 it is reported increase at 60 – 70

Current MSW generation has reached
1.3 kg/person/day

Element Of MSW
• Waste generation
• Waste handling, sorting, storage, and processing at the source
• Collection
• Separation, processing and transformation of solid wastes • Transfer and transport

Strategies for
Effective and
• Minimize waste generation
• Maximize waste recycling and reuse • Educate people on different ways of handling waste
• Systematic solid waste management Understand The
Composition and
Components of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW)


Characteris tic of MSW
Characterist ic Moisture content : increase the weight of solid waste , so the cost of collection & transportation will increasing Density : used to assess volume of transportation vehicle
& size of the disposal facility is essential in understanding the behavior of waste all through the waste management system and also in selecting and determining the efficiency of any treatment process

Compositio n Component s Understand The Process of
Generation and Handling of Municipal Solid Waste

Waste Generation
Waste generation include activities in which material identifed as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal.

Elements of collection, includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable material, but also the transport of these materials afer collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied.

Factor Influence Generation of MSW
• Socio-economic background:
– The buying power
– Income level

• Cultural background
• Locality:
– Urban
– Rural setting

Handling and Separating Municipal Solid
• Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in storage containers for collection.
• Handling also include the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection. Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.

Understand The Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW)
Collection Activities)

Collection Activities
• The most common collection services are curb/alley, set out/set back pickup, and backyard pickup.
• The collection services provided to large apartment buildings, residential complexes, commercial and industrial activities typically in centered around the use of large movable and stationary containers and large stationary compactors. Curb or Alley Pickup
• The quickest and most economical point of collection. • Using standard container that has been design by city council.

Set-out, Set-back Pickup
• Collectors have to enter property.
• Set out crew carries full containers from resident storage location to curb/alley before collection vehicle arrives.
• Set back crew return the container to storage area. Backyard Pickup
• Usually accomplish by the use of tote barrels.
• The collector enter the resident’s property, dumps the container into a tote barrel, carries it to the trucks and dumps it.

Transfer and Transport
• Transfer and transport refers to the facilities used to transfer of wastes from one location to another.
- Small collection vehicles are transferred to larger vehicles that are used to transport the waste over extended distances to disposal sites.

Understand The Various
Kinds of MSW Disposal
Methods Such as Land
Filling, Incineration and
Organic MSW Composting

Sanitary Land Filling

The controlled disposal of solid waste on the upper layer of the earth mantle in a manner the environmental hazards is minimized. Important technical aspects in the implementation of sanitary landfills include:
 Site selection.
 Land filling methods and operation.  Occurrence of gasses and leachate.  Movement and control of gases and leachate.

•The process of burning waste in large furnaces at high temperature is know as incineration. •It is used to dispose of solid liquid and gaseous waste
.Incineration facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. •At the end of the process all that is left behind is ash.

Incinerators System

• Compost Is the product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic material.
• The starting material for composting are commonly referred to a feed stocks

Explain the environmental, social , economical, and political information available for municipal solid waste (MSW)
a)The disposal site shall be capable of being characterized , modeled, analyzed and monitored. b)The disposal site shall be generally well drained and free of areas of flooding or frequent bonding.
c)Depend on the type of accommodation, terrace houses , flats , commercial area or factories
d)Collection service route

Effect of incineration sanitary landfill and composting to the environment • Release hundreds of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere; • Disposal of the ash (The toxic substance are more concentrated in the ash);
• Highly related to the economic condition;
• A classic short-term solution potentially useful
(recyclable or compostable) (it destroys material by turning it into toxic ash);

Know 4R’s Concept and
Justify Aspects and Issues related to recycling and composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

Describe waste reduction ,reuse, recovery and recycling concepts.
• Method of waste reduction, waste reuse, and recycling are the preferred options when managing waste.
• 4R’s stand for:

• By reducing, consumer and industry can save natural resources and reduce waste management costs.

• Large production companies such as Electronic, appliances and gadgets, should establish the collection centre, where damaged items can be repaired and reuse.

• Energy or material can be recovered from waste that are not reused or recycled

• Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources Identify the impact of reuse /recycle
/reduction on landfill design and operation.

saves natural resources. reduces toxicity of waste. reduce cost. helps sustain the environment for future generations.
• reduces the need for land filling and incineration. Explain on conventional and innovative waste utilization
/recycling technologies.


Two types of composting process:
1. Aerobic composting
2. Anaerobic composting
Factor that influence Aerobic composting process :
i. Particle size 25 to 75mm for the optimum chemical reaction to occur ii. The ratio of C:N (Carbon to nitrogen ratio) iii. Moisture content should be in the range 50-60% iv. Temperature the optimum temperature for the composting process is 50 to 70˚C
v. PH control the optimum for micro activity is 6.5-7.5 to prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH₃) gas , pH should not exceed 8.5 vi. Mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of the compost vii.Air requirements

2.Innovative viii.Will improve public health and safely achieve ix. Non-toxic gases, which are created, are stored in special containers (gas cylinders) and used as fuel and energy creators. x. Method takes place in a close system, without releasing ashes, waste remnants, dusts and toxic gases into environment. CASE STUDY :

• Garbage collecting is not follow work schedule especially involves area housing CAUSES

cause the occupants had to take the easy way to remove the debris and solid waste in open areas, including the roadside and at major crossroads on the road

remove debris and solid waste in open area away from the house ACTION

This Is because garbage and solid waste loaded in the barrel, in front of their homes are full THE EFFECTS
animals eat like cats and dogs, garbage lifted late in the barrel at the front door of his house will be wormy and rotten and then overflowing into the road shoulder.
not lasting the nauseating smell that permeates the house, every time you open the door until cause of the health and appetite.
experiencing severe odor pollution as wormy and rotting garbage in the trash lifted by garbage trucks.
Waste water overflowing from the truck in the road surface. Affected neighborhoods wedding
contaminate views
raises displeasure

Impacts of solid waste on environmen t Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas

Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable

Garbage disposal, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, leaching : is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them

Nausea and vomiting Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury Increase in hospitalizati on of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites

Low birth weight Impact s of solid waste on health
Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation

Populatio n growth

Increase in industrials manufacturi ng Urbanizati on Causes of increase in solid waste Preventive measures Systematic solid waste management Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal
Educate people on different ways of handling waste
Household level of proper segregation of waste, recycling and reuse
Process and product substitution example use paper bag instead of plastic bags garbage collection according to the schedule set

1. Wikipedia. Municipal Solid Waste. September
19, 2013, from htp:// 2.

Slide Share. Solid Waste. September 18, 2013, by Wali
Memon, from htp:// 3.

Silde Share. Minicipal Solid Waste. September
19, 2013, By Muhammad Fahad Ansar , htp:// lid-waste-by-muhammad-fahad-ansari-12ieem14-13324528

References: 19, 2013, from htp:// Slide Share. Solid Waste. September 18, 2013, by Wali Memon, from Silde Share. Minicipal Solid Waste. September 19, 2013, By Muhammad Fahad Ansar ,

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