top-rated free essay

Sleep Disorders 3

By Muniza-Iqbal Feb 20, 2015 838 Words
Sleep Disorders

Dr. M. Zain Yousuf
MBBS, MCPS (Resident)
SMO & In-charge In-patient Dept.
A. Q. Khan Institute

Sleep Disorders
Classification (ICD-10):1.
Nonorganic insomnia
Nonorganic hypersomnia
Nonorganic disorder of sleep-wake schedule
Sleepwalking [somnambulism]
Sleep terrors [night terrors]

Nonorganic Insomnia
Diagnostic guidelines:1. The complaint is either of difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep, or of poor quality of sleep;
2. The sleep disturbance has occurred at least three times per week for at least 1 month;
3. There is preoccupation with the sleeplessness & excessive concern over its consequences at night & during the day;
4. The unsatisfactory quantity &/or quality of sleep either causes marked distress or interferes with ordinary activities in daily living.

Nonorganic Hypersomnia
Diagnostic guidelines:1. Excessive daytime sleepiness or sleep attacks, not accounted for by an inadequate amount of sleep, &/or prolonged transition to the fully aroused state upon awakening (sleep drunkenness);

2. Sleep disturbance occurring daily for more than 1 month or for recurrent periods of shorter duration, causing either marked distress or interference with ordinary activities in daily living;
3. Absence of auxiliary symptoms of narcolepsy (cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations) or of clinical evidence for sleep apnoea (nocturnal breath cessation, typical intermittent snorting sounds, etc.);

4. Absence of any neurological or medical condition of which daytime somnolence may be symptomatic.

Nonorganic Disorder of SleepWake Schedule
Diagnostic guidelines:1. The individual's sleep-wake pattern is out of synchrony with the sleep-wake schedule that is normal for a particular society & shared by most people in the same cultural environment;

2. Insomnia during the major sleep period & hypersomnia during the waking period are experienced nearly every day for at least 1 month or recurrently for shorter periods of time;
4. The unsatisfactory quantity, quality, & timing of sleep cause marked distress or interfere with ordinary activities in daily living.

Diagnostic guidelines:1. The predominant symptom is one or more episodes of rising from bed, usually during the first third of nocturnal sleep, & walking about; 2. During an episode, the individual has a blank, staring face, is relatively unresponsive to the efforts of others to influence the event or to communicate with him or her, & can be awakened only with considerable difficulty;

3. Upon awakening (either from an episode or the next morning), the individual has no recollection of the episode;
4. Within several minutes of awakening from the episode, there is no impairment of mental activity or behavior, although there may initially be a short period of some confusion & disorientation;

5. There is no evidence of an organic mental disorder such as dementia, or a physical disorder such as epilepsy.

Sleep Terrors [Night Terrors]
Diagnostic guidelines:1. The predominant symptom is that one or more episodes of awakening from sleep begin with a panicky scream, & are
characterized by intense anxiety, body motility, & autonomic hyperactivity, such as tachycardia, rapid breathing, dilated pupils, & sweating;
2. These repeated episodes typically last 1-10 minutes & usually occur during the first third of nocturnal sleep;
3. There is relative unresponsiveness to efforts of others to influence the sleep terror event & such efforts are almost invariably followed by at least several minutes of disorientation & perseverative movements;

4. Recall of the event, if any, is minimal (usually limited to one or two fragmentary mental images);
5. There is no evidence of a physical disorder, such as brain tumor or epilepsy.

Diagnostic guidelines:1. Awakening from nocturnal sleep or naps with detailed & vivid recall of intensely frightening dreams, usually involving threats to survival, security, or self-esteem; the awakening may occur at any time during the sleep period, but typically during the second half; 2. Upon awakening from the frightening dreams, the individual rapidly becomes oriented & alert;

3. The dream experience itself, & the resulting disturbance of sleep, cause marked distress to the individual.


Assessment & treatment of any physical condition.
Assessment & treatment of any other psychiatric condition.
Education about sleep (e.g. stages of sleep, changes in sleep patterns with age & the nature of the particular sleep problem).

4. Sleep hygiene:i. Control of environmental factors (e.g. light, noise, temperature). ii. Wind down timing.
iii. Avoidance of caffeine since early evening.
iv. Not smoking since 1 hour before bedtime.
v. Regular exercise (not late at night).
vi. A late tryptophan snack (e.g. warm milk)
vii. Avoiding naps during daytime.
viii. Learning to set aside a time during the day to reflect on problems & stresses.

5. Stimulus control:i.
Go to bed only when sleepy;
Avoid other activities while in bed;
If sleep does not occur, do not remain in bed for more than 10–20 mins, get up & go to another room (without turning on all the lights), returning to bed only when sleepy;
Establish a regular time to get up, with no more than 1 hour's variation (even at weekends & during holidays).

6. Medications – Stimulants, TCAs or SSRIs in case of hypersomnia or narcolepsy. Or melatonin in case of disturbed sleep-wake cycle.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Sleep Disorders

    ...Sleep Disorders Sleep disorders are a part of more than 40 million American's lives. It is estimated that 60 percent of adults have sleep problems at least a few nights a week and as a result more than 40 percent of adults experience mild to severe daytime sleepiness. Children also experience sleep troubles, with 69 percent of kids prese...

    Read More
  • Sleep Stages

    ...SLEEP STAGES Name: Charles Stevens Date: 02/23/2013 This week's individual work explores dreams, and the stages and disorders associated with sleep. You are to describe in detail each sleep stage, three sleep disorders, and why sleep is necessary. This lesson provides an explanation of the measurement of brain activity, as well a...

    Read More
  • Sleep Disorders

    ...avoid the damage of tissues. Sleeping Hours: Age and condition | Sleep Needs | Newborns (0–2 months) | 12 to 18 hours | Infants (3–11 months) | 14 to 15 hours | Toddlers (1–3 years) | 12 to 14 hours | Preschoolers (3–5 years) | 11 to 13 hours | School-age childr...

    Read More
  • Sleep Disorder

    ...Chapter 20: Sleep Disorders •Sleep is a major function of daily living and mental health. •The average adult should get 7 to 9 hours of sleep daily. •However, many people are in the habit of frequently cutting back on sleep to meet other social needs. •The most common and major consequence of sleep loss is excessive sleepin...

    Read More
  • Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, & Drugs

    ...“I try to elude you for you sleep are the close cousin of death, but no matter how I try and escape the grasp of the two of you, I know soon I will fall prey to your seductive charms and my only reward will be to dream of his beautiful face”- Anneke Wilson Sleep! Some of us have no problem getting there, while others have to fight just to...

    Read More
  • Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs

    ...Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs Tyesia Wheeler Axia College of University of Phoenix PSY 240 Autumn Harrell December 16, 2012 Almost everyone, at some point in their lives, suffer from sleep deprivation. There are a lot of different reasons that people lose sleep that include not feeling tired, or because of their jobs, life issues...

    Read More
  • Sleep Disorders: Narcolepsy, Insomnia, Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    ...Sleep Disorders: Narcolepsy, Insomnia, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Psychology 101 October 13, 2006 Abstract Sleep disorders are more common than we realize. Because most people are not familiar with the signs of sleep disorders, they often suffer from their disorder or they are misdiagnosed. This research paper focuses on three main ...

    Read More
  • Psy240 Assignment Week 6: Sleep Deprivation, Disorders, and Drugs

    ...enough sleep would have been when my middle child had to have oral surgery. I don’t really know if it was because she was going under and she hadn’t been before, if it was the fact that my little girl was going to have surgery for the first time. I tried for several hours to fall asleep, but my mind would not stay still. I finally decided to...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.