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Silverlens Consumer Behaviour Study

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A Consumer Behavior Study on Silverlens
Presented to
Ms. Nina Poblador
Marketing and Advertising Department

In Partial fulfillment of the course requirement in MARKCU1

Submitted by:
Hernandez, Lester
Lim, Margaret
Obeles, Jolly
Piatos, Enrico

MARKCU1 K34

Table of Contents
I. Executive Summary
i. History and Background of the Firm ii. Product Offering
II. Profile of Industry Resource Person
III. Profile of 14 Respondents
i. Segmentation via Demographics ii. Segmentation via Psychographics
IV. External Influences
Social Environment Effect on Value Perception
i. Consumer Culture ii. Reference Group iii. Social Class iv. Family Influence Situational Influences effect on Consumption Process
i. Atmospheric ii. Time/ Timing iii. Conditional
V. Internal Influences
i. Consumer Psychology and Personality of Consumer Effect on
a. Learning
b. Perception
c. Memory
d. Attitudes ii. Consumption Process iii. Value Perception iv. Relationship Quality
VI. Personality of Consumer
i. Motivation
a. Consumer Motivation
b. Consumer Involvement ii. Personal Values and Emotional Expressiveness
a. Cognitive Appraisal Theory
b. Mood and Memories
c. Emotional Involvement iii. Personality iv. Brand Personality
VII. Summary of Findings and Recommendation to the Firm
VIII. References
IX. Appendix

I. Executive Summary

i. History and Background Silverlens Galleries is a Manila-based photo agency that shows contemporary Philippine art. Located in 2nd Floor YMC Building II, 2320 Pasong Tamo Extension, Makati City, it was established in 2004 as the first photography gallery in Southeast Asia. The company was established by Isa Lorenzo and Rachel Rillo, artists who work with photography, and has earned recognition from both artists and collectors as one of the leading contemporary art galleries in Southeast Asia.

Philippines as the art backbone, together with Indonesia, of Southeast Asia, Silverlens aims to place Philippine contemporary art to a greater heights through exhibition program, art representation, and institutional collaboration. In 2008, it expanded to include exhibitions of the rest of the Philippine contemporary arts. They opened two new spaces, SLab(Silverlens Lab) and the 20SQUARE project space which show painting, drawing, sculpture, and design. SLab is for larger curatorial exhibitions and solo shows, while 20SQUARE, has become a favorite exhibition venue for the intimacy it creates for the artwork.

The Silverlens Galleries show artists who push the boundaries of their medium and are aggressive in their dialogue with a critical audience. With a program of 30 shows a year in the three spaces, as well as participation in art fairs and institutional exhibitions, Silverlens represents gallery artists for their exposure, recall, recognition, and collection.

Recent collaborations include the Singapore Art Museum, New Museum in New York City, Museum of Contemporary Art and Design Manila, Busan Biennale, Aichi Triennale. Recent institutional collectors of Silverlens artists include LUMI Collection (Finland), Singapore Art Museum, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Collection (Manila), Since 2008, Silverlens has been participating in key international art fairs, such as ArtHK, Art Stage Singapore, Pulse New York, Pulse Miami, and Volta Basel.

ii. Product Offering

The featured artists of the month are Mariano Ching with his works entitled “Lost Days” and Carlos Celdran’s Livin’ La Vida Imelda. The group decided to study about the consumer perception towards Silverlens by focusing on the consumers of Carlos Celdran’s play.

John Charles Edward “Carlos” Pamintuan Celdran is Filipino tour guide, cultural activist, and performing artist. He was born on November 10, 1972. He grew up in Dasmarinas Village, Makati City. He attended grade school and high school at Colegio San Agustin - Makati. While still in high school, he found a job as a cartoonist for a business paper with an office in Manila. He enrolled at the University of the Philippines’ Department of Visual Communications. He transferred to the Rhode Island School of Design to major in Painting. Finding he was allergic to paint, he shifted and got a degree in Performance Art, graduating with honors. In the mid-’90s, he lived and worked in New York. On returning to Manila in the late ’90s, he worked as a set designer and director for Ballet Philippines and Actor’s Actors, Inc. In 2002, he founded his company Walk This Way, providing half-day walking tours of the heritage districts of Manila, from Quiapo to Intramuros to the Cultural Center of the Philippines, even overnight tours of Corregidor.

Carlos Celdran has two famous performances namely Intramuros and Livin’ La Vida Imelda. Intramuros is a classic walking tour, wherein you walk around Intramuros and learn more about Philippine Architecture, culture, & society from Pre-Hispanic Manila until the present. It is literally learning all about Manila one step at a time since Carlos explains and tells about the story of a certain structure. On the other hand, Livin’ La Vida Imelda was also a walking tour but only in the CCP area and this show talks about the life of the former first lady Imelda Marcos. Last year, Carlos was invited by the Art Dubai projects to perform his Livin’ La Vida Imelda tour as a one-man show in Dubai’s annual art fair and it is when he started to share Imelda Marcos’ life story in Performance art form. Recently, the uncensored version of Livin’ La Vida Imelda is shown in Silverlens.

II. Profile of Industry Resource Person

Rachel Rillo is one of the founders of the Silverlens Gallery. In 1992, she took up Fine Arts in Photography at the Academy of Art College in San Francisco, California. In 2000, she moved to Los Angeles to be a freelance photographer at the television industry. She shoots public photos for the news and show. Some of her clients include FOX TV, NBC, UPN, and CBS.

For more than a decade of living in the United States, she has shown her fine art work in San Francisco, Houston and Los Angeles. Her photos are published in many publications including Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Magazine, LA Opinion and other major publications in the Los Angeles Area. Her works are also shown in other countries like Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Sydney, Australia, Miami, Florida, USA and Hong Kong, China. Now, she is residing in the Philippines and is one of the people who manage Silverlens.

III. Profile of 14 Respondents

i. Segmentation via Demographics
Researchers have conducted an interview on 14 Livin’ La Vida Imelda consumers. Respondents were picked randomly after the show. They were asked about their experience in the show. With the interview, we were able to gather enough information to segment them.

Figure 2.1 Gender In figure 2.1, 64% of our respondents are males and 36% are females.

Figure 2.2 Age
In figure 2.2, 36% of our respondents belong to the age range of 31-40 followed by 41-50 with 29% and age range of 20-30 and 61-70 with 14% each.

Figure 2.3 Occupation
In figure 2.3, 29% of our respondents work in media and communications. 28% works as a businessman or businesswoman and another 28% belongs to the category others which includes teacher, works in embassy, etc. 14% works as an entertainer or performer.

Figure 2.4 Nationality In figure 2.4, 57% of our respondents are Filipino while the 43% are Foreigners.

ii. Segmentation via Psychographics
a. Values and Lifestyles
Through observation to the respondents, we can further segment them according to their values and lifestyles. Out of 14 respondents, 4 are under the experiencer, another 4 are under the innovator, 2 are under threatened actives, 2 are under the thinker group and another 2 respondents are under the Hedonistic group.

1. Experiencers
Consumers 1, 4, 5 and 12 belong to the Experiencers group. Experiencers are consumers who tend to be enthusiastic and are self-expressive. They also value excitement (Babin & Harris, 2011). These respondents belong to this group because they are self-expressive and enthusiastic to the show. All of them showed that they were very eager to watch the show.

2. Innovators
Consumers 6, 11, 13, and 14 belong to the group Innovators. They are the ones who are successful and sophisticated with a high self-esteem. They are motivated by ideals and self-expression. Image is important to them (Babin & Harris, 2011). These respondents belong to this group because they are successful people with courses like engineers, businessman or businesswoman etc.

3. Threatened Actives
Consumers 2 and 9 belong to the group threatened actives. These consumers are successful active adults who look for good times since they are nearing the retirement age (Babin & Harris, 2011). Consumers 2 and 9 belong to the age range of 51-70. Belonging to this age range, they are being threatened to some activities that they can do so they are looking for enjoyable stuffs that will still enjoy despite their old age.

4. Thinker
Consumers 3 and 8 belong to the group thinkers. These consumers are mature and reflective people who value order and knowledge. They are also conservative and practical consumers (Babin & Harris, 2011). These consumers are a political consultant and a writer so they reflect on the issues surrounding them.

5. Hedonistic
Consumer 7 and 10 belong to the hedonistic group. Consumers who belong to this group value human relationship and work. They are interested in new product offerings (Babin & Harris, 2011). Consumer 7 values her relationship with her sister that is why she came to watch the show while consumer 10 is interested in a new product offering of Carlos Celdran.

Listed below is the summary of the answers of the 14 consumers that were interviewed:

1. Name: Paolo O’Hara Experiencer Occupation: Actor Age: 31-40 Nationality: Filipino
He watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because he has friends in the cast. He found out about Silverlens because of the show. He didn’t have any expectations prior to watching the show. He was very satisfied with the show with a rating of 8 and he also said that the show was fun.

2. Name: Evelyn Threatened Actives Occupation: Retired Teacher Age: 61-70 Nationality: American
She watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because she has heard about Carlos Celdran and his tours so she decided to watch and she also thought that it would be interesting. She found out about Silverlens because of the show. She expects to hear gossips about Imelda Marcos. She was very satisfied with the show with a rating of 8.5.

3. Name: Larid Reyes Thinker Occupation: Political Consultant Age: 61-70 Nationality: Filipino
He watched the show because he wants to see what other people think of Imelda. He found out about Silverlens through the show. He has heard both side of Imelda’s character and he wants to keep his opinion on what he thinks about Imelda. He is very satisfied with the show with a rating of 8 or 9.

4. Name: Diana Alvarez Experiencer Occupation: Stage Actress Age: 31-40 Nationality: Filipino She watched the show because she was invited by her friends. She found out about Silverlens through her friends. She didn’t have any expectations prior to watching the show. She was also very satisfied with the show with a rating of 8.

5. Name: Jade Castro Experiencer Occupation: Film Maker Age: 31-40 Nationality: Filipino He watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because he has heard of it before when it was still a walking tour and his friends also gave a good review on it. It was not his first time in Silverlens because he has been going to the art events offered by the firm. He was expecting the show to be funny, juicy and factoid filled. He was very satisfied with a rating of 9.5. He didn’t give a rating of 10 because the CR is too far.

6. Name: Nishan Innovator Occupation: Writer Age: 31-40 Nationality: Singaporean He watched the show because 5 years ago he watched Carlos Celdran Intramuros tour and find it very brilliant. He found out about the show through Carlos Celdran’s website. He has expectations because the Intramuros tour was really fun so he expects the show to be fun also. He expected it to be an outdoor show and also a one man show. He shared that the story of the Marcos’s is recognize in Singapore as good governance. He said that it was heartbreaking to know about the story of Imelda. He was very satisfied also with a rating of 9.72.

7. Name: Tina Henson Hedonistic Occupation: Businesswoman Age: 41-50 Nationality: Filipino She watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because she heard about it from her sister. Her sister told her how interesting and amazing the show was. She found out about Silverlens because of the show. She expects Silverlens to be wide and spacious. For the show, she was told about the summary of it so she has bits of information about the show. Philippine Contemporary art is improving but people still lack awareness of it. She was very satisfied with a rating of 8. The space is small and intimate which is perfect.

8. Name: Verna Villanueva Thinker Occupation: Writer Age: 41-50 Nationality: Filipino
She watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because she heard about it from her friend and her friend told her that the show was interesting and amazing. She found out about Silverlens because of the show. Her friend told the summary of the show so she already has an idea on what to expect. Philippine Contemporary art is young and more Filipinos still need to be exposed in this kind of art. She was also very satisfied with a rating of 8. The place is good and very nice.

9. Name: Siete Threatened Actives Occupation: Works for a Norwegian Embassy Age: 51-60 Nationality: Norwegian He watched the show because he was invited by his friends and he heard good things about it. He found out about Silverlens through his friends. He has no expectations prior to watching the show. He doesn’t know much about Philippine Contemporary art. He was very satisfied and enjoyed the show with a rating of 8.

10. Name: Thomas Hedonistic Occupation: Businessman Age: 31-40 Nationality: American He watched the show because he had been going to the tours of Carlos Celdran and he liked it a lot so he decided to come and watched the show. He found out about Silverlens through a review in a newspaper and in a social networking site. He didn’t have any expectations to Silverlens. He expects the show to be funny and educational. He was very satisfied with the show with a rating of 8.5.

11. Name: Kirsten Innovator Occupation: Businesswoman Age: 20-30 Nationality: Filipino She watched the show because she heard that it was good. She found out about the show through online. It’s her 3rd time in Silverlens. She has been going to the art fairs. She expects that it would be good. She is very satisfied with a rating of 9 because it’s very simple yet it’s creatively done.

12. Name: EJ Experiencer Occupation: Businessman Age: 20-30 Nationality: Filipino He watched the show because he was invited by his girlfriend. He found out about the show through his girlfriend. It’s his first time in Silverlens. He is also very satisfied with a rating of 9 because it’s very entertaining.

13. Name: Hans Innovator Occupation: Engineer Age: 41-50 Nationality: Swedish He watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda because of two things, first reason is that Carlos is really good and second is the history. He did not expect anything about Silverlens because he was not aware of it. Being in Silverlens, nothing changed about his perception on Philippine Contemporary Art. He was very satisfied with a rating of 8. The show is fantastic and the gallery is nice.

14. Name: Steve Innovator Occupation: Working on Asia Development Bank Age: 41-50 Nationality: American He watched the show because he knew the group and Carlos Celdran and he was interested in seeing it. He found out about Silverlens and Livin’ La Vida Imelda through his friends. Being in Silverlens, nothing changed about his perception on Philippine Contemporary Art. He didn’t expect anything but he was impressed. He was very satisfied with the show with a rating of 10.

Typical Consumer of Silverlens: “Sophia”

Sophia is 36 years old, works as a journalist and is an enthusiast of art. She is a half Filipino and half British. As a little girl, she would enjoy reading books about the Philippines and dress up. She grew up to be a fan of fashion trends and at the same time fell in love with the culture of the Philippines.

Now she is engaged to her current boyfriend, Marco, who works as an Entrepreneur. Sophia is successful with her job as a lifestyle journalist aside from this she often visits art galleries to cultivate her views on her love for art. As for the couple’s past time, they enjoy trying new experiences (new products, movies, books and the like). Although most of the time Sophia would be the one to go around and find the perfect new “experience” for them.

IV. External Influences

Social Environment Effect on Value Perception
i. Consumer Culture
Culture

Philippines
Since most Filipinos love to hear gossips and stories, there is no doubt that they would also like to watch the play. Livin’ La Vida Imelda, a cultural play, did capture our hearts as it’s not only a story of a former Filipino first lady but it’s a gossip about the most powerful woman in the Philippines. The talks and rumors about the former first lady becomes a force of attraction towards the Filipinos and their liking towards the so-called “chismis” especially ones rooted in our history.

Core Societal Values
Included in the Core Societal Values are nationalities which visited in Silverlens during our stay in the company. The group believes that, if Silverlens is trying to push Philippine Contemporary Art in the international art scene, it would be advised to study such nationalities currently visiting the gallery itself.

Philippines Sample Consumers: Paolo O’hara, Larid Reyes, Diana Alvarez, Jade Castro, Tina Henson, Verna Villanueva, Kirsten, and EJ

Power Distance
The Philippines has a high power distance so it can be called a hierarchical society. This signifies the people in the Philippines have the division of the social classes or status. An example is during shopping. Whenever high profile personalities shop, stores usually close to accommodate them, leaving the public waiting outside for their turn.

Individualism
The Philippines has low individualism so it is a collectivistic society. This signifies that the people tend to be in a group or be with their families. As we can see the consumers that are Filipinos usually go in pairs or groups. For Filipinos, family is very important so most of the people still stay in their parents house when they got married.

Masculinity
The Philippines has a high rate of masculinity. This shows that the people works hard and tends to fight for their right in the society. Filipinos are very competitive.

Uncertainty avoidance
The Philippines has a low preference in avoiding uncertainty. People are open to changes and new ideas. This can be seen almost everywhere. Filipinos are willing to try and experience new stuff. For example, different restaurants from other countries are now here in the country for Filipinos to try.

Long term orientation
The Philippines has a short term orientation culture. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.

Singapore Sample Consumer: Nishan

Power Distance
Singapore is also a hierarchical society. They also have the different levels of socioeconomic classes. This is because they believe in the Confucian teaching of stability of the society.

Individualism
Singapore has a low individualism. The same as the Philippines, they value family very much. They also believe in the teaching of Confucious wherein the family is the prototype of all social organization.

Masculinity
The level of Masculinity in Singapore is in the middle but more on the feminine side. For Singaporeans, being modest and humble is important. It can also be seen in their government’s five shared values: Community support and respect for individual.

Uncertainty avoidance
Singapore has a low rate of uncertainty avoidance. They have a lot of rules to follow due to high level of Power distance. Singapore is called a Fine country wherein you’ll get a fine in everything.

Long term orientation
Singapore has an average long term orientation. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.

Sweden Sample Consumer: Hans

Power Distance
Sweden has a low score on this dimension, which shows that Swedish individuals have equal rights. In Sweden, managers and employees communicates directly wherein the managers are also called by their first names and the employees are spoke with a consultative manner.

Individualism
Sweden is an individualistic society, the people there are more independent. When they reach a specific age, they usually take care of themselves. In their job, they get promotions or advantages through their own quality.

Masculinity
Sweden has a very low masculinity, they are very feminine. They resolve problems through negotiation not through fighting. Sweden is also determined as the most feminine country.

Uncertainty Avoidance
Sweden has a low preference of uncertain avoidance. Low uncertainty avoidance means they maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles. They believe that there should be no more rules than are necessary. For them, schedules are flexible and hard work is undertaken only when necessary. Precision and punctuality do not come naturally for them.

Long term Orientation
Sweden has a short term orientation culture, it shows that Swedish people exhibit great respect for traditions. They are impatient for achieving great result and they have a strong concern with establishing the truth.

Norway Sample Consumer: Siete

Power Distance
Norway has a low power distance; it has the same characteristics with Sweden in this dimension. This is because of their characteristics of being independent, they believe that hierarchy is for convenience only, equal rights, and superiors are accessible. Power is decentralized. Communication is direct, participative and consensus oriented.

Individualism
Norway is considered an individualistic society. Norwegian gives importance to personal opinions. Like Sweden, they are more independent and takes care of themselves when they reach a certain age. Privacy is important and respected for them. There are clear lines between work and private life. Feedback is direct and nepotism is not encouraged.

Masculinity
Norway is also a feminine society which ranks second next to Sweden. The softer aspects of culture are valued and encouraged. Taking care of the environment is important to them. Trying to be better than others is neither socially nor materially rewarded. Societal solidarity is important for them. Their focus is on well-being and not on status. For them, an effective manager is a supportive one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.

Uncertainty Avoidance
Norway is in the middle in terms of uncertainty avoidance. They believe that both generalists and experts are needed. There is focus on planning, and they can be altered at short notice and improvisations made. Emotions are not shown much in Norway.

Long term Orientation
Norway is a more short term oriented society. Leisure time is important for them. They believe that absolute truths are needed and there is concern for stability. Quick results are expected whenever they are doing something.

United States of America Sample Consumer: Evelyn, Thomas, Steve

Power Distance
The United States has a low power distance. This is because they believe in “liberty and justice for all”. They focus on equal rights in all aspects of society and government. Hierarchy for them is just established for convenience. Superiors are always accessible and managers rely on employees for their expertise. Also, communication is informal, direct, and participative. This can be seen in a typical American family wherein children can have their own say regarding the issues of the family. They can also make their own choices regardless of what their parents has to say.

Individualism The United States has a highly individualistic culture. People look after themselves and their immediate families. There is also a high degree of geographical mobility in the United States. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of work, hiring, and promotion decisions are based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do. Individualism is also evident whenever a kid reaches the age of eighteen and goes to college. They separate from their parents and live on their own.

Masculinity The United States is considered as a “masculine” society. Americans are expected to “strive to be the best they can be” and “the winner takes all”. Americans display and talk freely about their successes and achievements in life. Conflicts are resolved at the individual level and the goal is to win. Their competitiveness is very evident. It can be seen in their sports, culture, and even wars they’ve been through.

Uncertainty Avoidance
American society is what one would describe as “uncertainty accepting”. There is a larger degree of acceptance for new ideas, innovative products, and a willingness to try something new or different. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. This is very evident in United States right now and even before. There are places in the United States for different nationalities. They allow other cultures to mix with them. As a result, there are places for Chinese, Mexicans, Italians, and even Filipinos in the United States.

Long term Orientation
The United States is a short-term oriented culture. It is a culture focused on traditions and fulfilling social obligations. American businesses measure their performance on a short-term basis. They also strive for quick results.

Cultural Distance

Power Distance
For the power distance, Philippines scored the highest with 94 followed by China with 80 and Singapore with 74. Sweden and Norway have the least with a score of 31.

Individualism
For individualism, United States ranked first with a score of 91 followed by Sweden with a score of 71 and Norway with a score of 69.

Masculinity
For Masculinity, the top two countries are closely related with a 2 points gap. Philippines with a score of 64 and United States with a score of 62.

Uncertainty Avoidance
For the uncertainty avoidance like the masculinity, the three countries are closely related with each other. Norway scored 50 followed by the United States with a score of 46 and Philippines with a score of 44.

Long Term Orientation
For the Long term orientation, Singapore is the highest with a score of only 48 and Norway with a score of only 44.
Learning Cultures

Enculturation

Silverlens aims to promote the Philippine Contemporary Art. According to Rachel Rillo, co-director of Silverlens, contemporary art is the crossover of mediums whatever the artist has to say in whatever form. Do their consumers even know what Philippine art is? How did they learn about it? Enculturation is the process by which one learns his or her native culture. This is through his experiences that one learns what one’s culture is all about. In the case of Silverlens, we Filipinos know our culture that has been taught to us when we were a kid or what we learn from our experiences in our daily lives. For example, we use the word “po” and “opo” to show respect. In art, there is also this culture that we have developed through time. We can see it in our history and the way artworks are presented here in our country. From the pre-historic age up to the present, we have our own way in doing our art works. We also have subjects in our artworks that we can say to be very Filipino like the Bayanihan which has been shown in numerous art works made by Filipinos. As we can see, the Filipino culture in art is really evident in our artworks. And with that in mind, we can say that this culture affects the mindset of the consumer in their consuming habits or choices.

Silverlens represents Filipino artists for the Filipino people to appreciate. They give them chance to be well known and their artworks to have value. But who will buy their artworks? People who learned the Filipino culture through their experiences. People who have been influenced and taught to love the Pinoy culture. What we see and hear around us shapes us to be who we are. The Filipino in us tells us that what Silverlens has to offer that talks about being Pinoy is great and should be purchased. This is also the reason why we understand the artworks that Silverlens has to offer. Because of our knowledge of the Filipino culture, we can relate to the things regarding Philippine Contemporary Art which Silverlens offers.

Acculturation

We all know that Filipinos are all around the world and we can see them almost everywhere we go. This may be one factor why our culture has been acculturated to other nationalities. Filipinos not only share their services while they are outside of our own shores. They also bring with them the culture that they have been raised up to. The fact that we are everywhere makes our culture more well-known even to the people who have not been raised here in the country. Like in a video posted in YouTube, kids abroad even learned Tagalog words because their nannies and helpers are Filipinos. Also, there have been numerous times when a foreigner sings tagalog songs like “Bakit Ngayon Ka Lang?”. This instances help us and our culture to be more popular to other races. It also helps us in the process of uplifting our own economic status. People around the world consume goods that have been traditionally ours. Our culture has been globalized by our compatriots that are practically everywhere in this planet.

Silverlens also enjoys this phenomenon. Because our culture has been marketed abroad, foreigners also consume our products. This is noticeable when we watched Livin’ La Vida Imelda. Silverlens’ guests were mostly foreigners who are curious and interested in the Filipino culture. They want to learn and experience the Filipino culture which they hear and see from every Filipinos they meet around the world. Also, Silverlens joins different art fairs and exhibit abroad and when they go there, the artworks of Silverlens that they promote are marketable due to the fact that foreigners know our own culture. For that reason, even those who were not raised in a Filipino cultured society consumes the products that Silverlens offers. After all, what Silverlens aims to promote and visualize is that our own contemporary art to be at par with others around the world.

Fundamental Elements of Communication Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Silverlens uses both verbal and non-verbal communication in communicating with the consumers. The manager or the employees approaches the consumers when they arrive at the art gallery, he or she introduces the month’s theme and show them around. Also, in the show, Carlos Celdran used English language which is easier for the consumers that are from foreign country to understand the topic about a Filipino Character. As for the non-verbal communication, since Silverlens is now showing Carlos Celdran’s Livin’ La Vida Imelda, which last around 2-3 hours, is telling the consumers that instead of watching some movie in cinema houses you can also come and enjoy this relaxation of art. During the show, Carlos was the only one who speaks and the cast was only the one who does the acting, the consumers watching the show doesn’t focus on Carlos, the narrator, but gave more attention to the casts, looking at their facial expressions and actions can make the consumer easily know what the scene is about. Also, when Carlos was saying a statement which made everyone thought that the show was over the consumers agreed with what he said and clapped their hands to show their agreement. Proper etiquette was followed, since in Silverlens the manager/director or the employees smile to the consumers when they arrive at the art gallery. The promotion of Philippine Contemporary Art by Silverlens can be seen through the artworks and the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda, even though the director doesn’t say that they are promoting it, the consumers can get the message from what is shown to them in the gallery.

ii. Reference Groups
Group Reference

Group influence refers to the ways in which group members influence the attitudes, opinions, and behaviors of others within the group. We can see this in families, group of friends, colleagues, and acquaintances. They influence as with what we need and why we need something. They give us opinions whether something is worth it in our consuming habit. The behaviour towards a product is also being influenced by a group. A group has a great influence in a consumers’ buying behaviour. They have a say on what we consume.

As for Silverlens, most of its consumers are part of a group. They influence each other on whether to consume the products of Silverlens or not. For example, in the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda, most of the respondents told the group that they learned about the play from their friends or colleagues. As we can see here, the influence of those who already watched the show greatly affects the sales of Silverlens. It is through this influence that Silverlens gain its popularity and name.

Word-of-Mouth
Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth

Isn’t it amazing that a product can be known to almost everyone just by simply doing the word-of-mouth. Some of our consumers knew about Silverlens through the Word-of-Mouth. They said that it was through their friends or sisters that they knew Silverlens. Word-of-mouth occurs naturally when one truly enjoys or hates a product or service. So when your friends shared something, you will know that they had a great or bad experience because they want you or prevents you to experience it too. Word-of-mouth is so powerful that it can increase or decrease sales of a certain product or service because as a consumer, we believe our co-consumer rather than advertisements etc. For Livin’ La Vida Imelda, the consumers resulted to watching the show because their friends told them that it was very interesting and it was really good. With this, the people who recommend the show to the respondents are using the Information Influence. iii. Social Class
According to Rachel Rillo, co-director of Silverlens, in 2006, they were the first photography gallery in Southeast Asia so their market were really specific and very small because a lot people collect contemporary art like paintings only not even sculptures or drawings on paper. So they really need to work hard inorder for the Photography art be known in the market. At first, they didn’t have a target market because they just wanted to expose people who like art to photography.
This is evident in the segmentation part of the respondents above based on their demographics. Majority of them belong to the occupation category of media and communications which has somehow a relation to art. Silverlens, as observed by the group, from the artists to the consumers, caters to all levels of social classes who have interest in art.

iv. Family Influence
Family members have a great influence to another’s attitude, thoughts, and behaviour. It is an important primary reference group for consumers (Babin & Harris, 2011). One consumer that was interviewed by the group said that she learned about Livin’ La Vida through her sister. Her sister said that she should watch the show because it was really good so she decided to come and watch the show. When asked about how was her experience about the show, she said that she was very satisfied.

Situational Influences Effect on Consumption Process

i. Atmospherics
In consumer behaviour, atmospherics refers to the emotional nature of an environment or, more precisely, to the feelings created by the aura of physical attributes that comprise the physical environment (Babin & Harris, 2011).

Affective Quality
The affective quality represents the emotional meaning of an environment, which results from the sum effect of all ambient attributes that affect the way one feels in that place (Babin & Harris, 2011).

Music
In the play of Carlos Celdran’s Livin’ La Vida Imelda, they used lots of foreground and background musics. For example, they used foreground music when the casts danced. They also used background music when Carlos was talking about serious stuff. The use of music in the play affected the consumer in a way that they felt involved and connected in the play. Like when they played slow music, it made the consumer feel sad or down. On the other hand, the use of fast music made them happy about what they are watching. It also made the play more interesting. The use of music also affected the consumers’ feelings toward the play and Silverlens. Moreover, they also play rap and rock music during the break and at the end of the show. That made the consumers to go out of the venue because those kinds of music make a person impatient. As a result, it gave the casts and crew to prepare for the next scenes or clean up.

Colour Silverlens Gallery is painted predominantly in white. The colour of its walls also affects the behaviour of the consumers towards the product and the company itself. Because white connotates elegance and purity, the company is also associated with those characteristics. It also affects the quality and perception of the people. The quality of service that Silverlens offer can also be affected by the colors they use. With the white walls, consumers think that Silverlens is sincere and pure in its objective to promote arts in the country.

Social Setting
Social setting is the atmospheric element that involves the social environment,referring to the other customers and employees in a service or shopping environment, and crowding, which refers generally to the density of people and objects within a given space (Babin & Harris, 2011). In the case of Silverlens, because they want the experience to be a fun and interactive learning activity, the numbers of viewers are limited from thirty to forty people. It made the consumer feel more intimate towards the show because they made it feel more connected to what they watching.

ii. Time/Timing
Time can be thought as a consumer’s most valuable resource. In some ways, time is a consumer’s only real resource because it can be converted into economic resources. Time is necessary for consumption to occur (Babin & Harris, 2011).

Time Pressure Time pressure is represented by an urgency to act based on some real or self-imposed deadline (Babin & Harris, 2011). In the case of Silverlens, they only show a certain show or collection at a limited time, usually 4 to 5 weeks. For example, the collections of Mariano Ching “Lost days” is just in Silverlens for the month of March so if people may want to see it they only have until the end of the month to see it. Also, there are only few days that Carlos Celdran’s “Livin’ La Vida Imelda” will be shown in the gallery so they are pressured to watch the show at those times if they wish to do so. Time pressure can also be seen during the shows of Silverlens. When we went there to watch Livin’ La Vida Imelda, the show started at seven thirty in the evening as stated in the ticket. They also had to start the show immediately after the fifteen minute break. The show is also limited to two to three hours only. This time pressure affects the consumption and behaviour of the consumers toward the product because with limited time, consumers can recall only few information about the experience.

Time of Year Seasonality refers to regularity occurring conditions that vary with the time of year (Babin & Harris, 2011). As for Silverlens, they chose to show Livin La Vida Imelda from February to March. This is very timely because the show is about the former first lady Imelda Marcos and during this time of the year we are celebrating the success of the first EDSA People Power Revolution. The show is very relevant to the season and people got more interested about the show because of the People Power season.

Time of Day The time of day affects the value of product and activities. Livin La Vida Imelda was shown at seven thirty in the evening which is usually after people got off from work or school. This is the most convenient time for them to watch after a hard day of work. It is also during this time that they would want to relax and enjoy. Also, because it is shown in night time, the time adds more intimacy to the play.

iii. Conditions
Conditions refers to situational characteristics that a consumer brings to a particular information processing, purchase, or consumption environment. Events occurring prior to this particular point in time have created a situation. Conditions include things like economic resources, mood, and other emotional perceptions such as fear (Babin & Harris, 2011).

Economic Resources The economic resources a consumer brings to a particular purchase setting refer to the consumer’s buying power (Babin & Harris, 2011). In the case of Silverlens and Livin La Vida Imelda, the consumers were willing to pay up to one thousand one hundred pesos for a three hour show about Imelda Marcos. This is actually pricey for a play that isn’t in CCP, Meralco Theatre, or any other large performing art centers. So, we can say that the consumers of Silverlens and Livin La Vida Imelda has a high buying power which can be associated to upper and middle class of the society.

Mood Mood is defined as a transient affective state. Mood can affect the consumption experience. The mood that consumers bring to the shopping environment can exaggerate the actual experience (Babin & Harris, 2011). In the case of Silverlens, we can say that its consumers are in good mood to watch and experience art. It is seen on how they react to the things that are happening while they are experiencing the product that the company has to offer; like when there are times that they laugh at hilarious things being shown. They are in the mood to experience art at its finest form.

Security and Fearfulness Fearfulness can affect consumers in multiple ways. A consumer who goes shopping in a fearful mood will not to about his or her shopping in the same way. A fearful consumer will tend to buy less and enjoy the experience less (Babin & Harris, 2011). As for Silverlens, its consumer can’t be said to be fearful during the consumption period. Because of the fact that they are in one of the most urban area of Metro Manila and the place is guarded well enough, they have no reason to feel fearful and uncomfortable.

V. Internal Influences

i. Consumer Psychology and Personality of Consumer Effect on
a. Learning

For almost a decade of existence, this year, Silverlens has collaborated with Carlos Celdran to perform his “Livin La Vida Imelda” for the second time in a gallery setting. His previous tours were a walking tour or a performance in the CCP complex. More than half of the people who watched the show said that it was their first time in Silverlens.

For the learning purpose of Livin’ La Vida Imelda, it was more of an intentional learning because people go there to know more about Imelda Marcos. The performance is more like a “gossip type” so people are really curious on what Carlos have to share about Imelda Marcos. People who watched the show comprehends the information being presented by Carlos Celdran. For Silverlens, it was more of an unintentional learning because some of our respondents said that they didn’t know that Silverlens has paintings in it. When they arrived in Silverlens, they were surprise to know that there are paintings displayed there so after buying the ticket they went around to look what Silverlens has to offer. With this, it can be said that instrumental conditioning happened. The paintings here are considered as the reinforcers as it resulted to a response. Instrumental conditioning is when behaviour is conditioned through reinforcement (Babin & Harris, 2011)

b. Perception

1. Consumer Perception Process

a. Sensing (Exposure)
Upon entering the Gallery, consumers are being exposed to the name “Mariano Ching” which sends that all the artworks that they will be seeing in the gallery is made by Mariano Ching.

Mariano Ching is a painter, photographer and illustrator. He graduated at the University of the Philippines with a degree in Bachelor of Fine Arts (Major in Painting). He was also a Monbusho Japanese Grant scholar. Mariano Ching paints and draws Macabre portrayals of alternate world. He has shown works in various spaces in Manila, Malaysia, Japan, Singapore, and France, and in 2006, he was awarded the Cultural Center of the Philippines Thirteen Artists Award. His displayed works entitled Lost Days shows mostly a person staring or gazing at something then a memory of that flashes in front of them. It’s telling us that we may not be able to bring back those times but we can be able to bring back those memories that we had in that particular moment.

For the Livin’ La Vida Imelda, the poster shows a face of former first Lady Imelda Marcos which exposes the consumers that the show is all about Imelda Marcos.

b. Organizing (Attention)
For attention, consumers simply cannot grasp to all the stimuli that they are exposed to. In the gallery, the artworks are given enough spaces for the consumers to focus one artwork at a time.

c. Reacting (Comprehension)
For an artwork, it can have different interpretations. It will depend on the consumers on how they will react to that certain artwork.

The firm tried to catch the attention of the consumers by displaying different kinds of art in the Gallery like paintings, photography and performance art. Since photography art is just starting to build a name in the art genre, they want to just expose the people who like art to photography art. The consumers acquired an assimilation reaction because they immediately recognize the place as an art gallery. The consumers saw the same painting in the gallery and they also saw the same performance but they derive different meaning from it so the selective perception used is the selective distortion.

2. Comprehension
a. Characteristics of the message

1. Physical Characteristics

The logo of silverlens is very plain. The letters are color black and the background color used is white. The color black represents elegance or class while the color white represents purity, cleanliness and freshness. These color suits what Silverlens has to offer because Silverlens is trying to promote a new artform which is the “photography art”. It is offering something new and fresh. Photography art is something which a lot of people are still not aware of so the colors used suit the message that Silverlens wants to share to the people.

2. Simplicity and Complexity.
The simple the message you want your readers to see and read the better understanding they will have. Silverlens wants to expose the people to Photography art. They wanted to let the people know that Photography art exist. The message that they send out is pretty simple to understand.

3. Congruity-Incongruity
Every month the gallery changes its displayed artworks. They cater to several artists displaying their different works of art. Here it becomes incongruent thus the reason why Silverlens is known for its contemporary art. They don’t just offer avenues for Photography, but also that of paintings and performance art. This makes it more memorable as it gives out a feel of variety, aside from your usual photography gallery. This month it may be all paintings, but next month it might be photographs or even both, thus people will more likely be able to grasp that Silverlens caters to different forms of contemporary art rather than just photography or just paintings.

Congruity is shown by Silverlens because what they show in their galleries are Philippine Contemporary Art in different forms and genres.

4. Figure – Ground
The word Silverlens represents the figure while the white color represents the background. In this case, the figure and the background is not that difficult to distinguish as people have the natural inclination to treat white as a background color.

According to Sean Brimer, a gallerist preparator in Haines Gallery in San Franciso said that the walls are painted white to allow the attention of the viewers to the artworks. The white walls of Silverlens help the artworks to be much more visible to the viewers. It makes the artworks be properly lit and without any distractions.

b. Message Receiver and Characteristics

The consumers of the event Livin’ La Vida Imelda are educated people. The consumers are capable of reading and writing and even speaking fluent English. They are more or less a college graduate already and are now working in the industry or have their own businesses.

The consumers who watched the show are familiar with former first lady Imelda Marcos but this show is more of a hidden stories of the former first lady so consumers tend to want to comprehend more the information that is given to them.

The consumers expected that the gallery would have a lot of paintings but the gallery only had few paintings displayed. This can have a bad effect because their expectations were not met so they might not go back to the Gallery.

c. Environmental Characteristics

Silverlens provide all the information about them in their website. They have uploaded the curriculum vitae of each artist in their website so consumers can download it. They have also included a short biography of their represented artist and a photo of their works that they have done. They also included a description on the size of the painting and what tool was used. The site is divided into different portions like artists, exhibitions, contact, etc so that the information will not be crowded in the website.

Framing is a term that captures the idea that the same information can take on different meanings based on the way in which the information is presented (Babin & Harris, 2011). Take for example the way Silverlens sells the ticket of “Livin La Vida Imelda”. Its P1,100 for non student while 50% off for students which is P550. This positively framed message encourage students to watch the show because is 50% off than the regular price.

C. Memory
Associative Network
i. Script - With art shows people usually have it in their minds that they are to be greeted and having to wait to be seated for the show. Once seated they wait for a couple of minutes and usually there would be a ticking sound signalling that the show is about to start. With Silverlens and Livin’ La Vida Imelda, there was a ticking sound right before the show, although it repeated several times, so the audience wasn’t really sure if the show was actually going to start already. Everyone was anxious with the ticking sound and yet the show actually started when the lights started to dim off.

ii. Episodic Memory - Perhaps with episodic memory is the feeling when children were about to wait to watch a new show as a kid. Same with Silverlens, the people were to wait outside (opt to line up or not), waiting for Carlos Celdran’s show. Silverlens gave this waiting sensation as something people did during their childhood days, waiting for a new episode or show to pop out of the screens of the television. If we look at episodic memory for the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda then we would be able to see how people miss the olden days when everything was simpler. Aside from the simple life, we could also see how people remain sensitive about the things that happened during the Marcos Administration.

iii. Social Schema - Since Silverlens is an art gallery, people would expect to see customers belonging to the upper class and middle class of society. With this mentality, people would tend to dress up nice as to have that sense of belonging. As with the show, we could see people there dressed up nicely and wore lavish clothes. Consumers here would have occupations that would have at least some relation to art. For the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda, it can be suggested that people who would watch this have an amount of curiosity as to the former first lady and former Philippine President.

iv. Personal Elaboration - With Silverlens, it gives you a vibe of the contemporary art the Philippines has to offer. When asking the consumers, they thought of Philippine Contemporary Art as something young and new in the art scene. Some of them believe that more people need to be exposed to this type of art. Though most of them had no lasting impression on Philippine Contemporary Art. Although for the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda, consumers would have this question in mind of what truly happened during the Marcos Administration, were the things said in the play all rumors or could they possibly entail some truth?

D. Attitudes
1. Consumer Attitudes

a. Affect - In terms of affect, the consumers of Silverlens view on performance art is good. They like performance art because they like Carlos Celdran (he was the reason as to why they went to Silverlens in the first place)

b. Behavior - Behavior on the other hand, it appears that most of the consumers always go about art shows/galleries. Some of them have been to the CCP and the likes. With this we can say that they are used to art shows.

c. Cognition or Beliefs - With Cognition, the consumers of Silverlens believe that Philippine Contemporary Art is still young as opposed to those of that in other countries. They believe that people lack awareness as to our part in the International Art Scene.

Overall, the consumers can be placed under Experiential in the Hierarchy of Effects. The main reason as to why they went to Silverlens is because of their liking towards Carlos Celdran. Although their views on Philippine Contemporary Art and their usual go about to art shows are a factor, their appreciation towards Celdran is the main factor. Here we can infer that the artists Silverlens currently exposes (Carlos Celdran and Mariano Ching) are the reason as to their consumers’ attitude on the firm itself.

2. Attitude Functions

a. Utilitarian Function – With the Utilitarian Function, the consumers feel that expressing there love of art by going to Silverlens would help in exposing Philippine Contemporary Art in the International Art Scene. Another reward would be the added knowledge they would gain with regards to the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda.

b. Knowledge Function - A reason as to why most of the consumers went to Silverlens is because it’s more convenient for them to see Carlos Celdran as opposed to going around other art galleries to see him (e.g. walking around CCP just to get a hold of Celdran, one of the consumers expressed)

c. Value Expressive - In terms of the Value Expressive function, the consumers went to Silverlens as a way of expressing their love for the arts, their constant support for Carlos Celdran.

d. Ego-Defensive - It appears that the consumers have no particular attitude in terms of the ego-defensive function. They go to Silverlens for the art and Carlos Celdran not because it gives them a better view of themselves.

3. Message Appeal and Persuasion

a. Sex
There were parts in Livin’ La Vida Imelda when sex and sex jokes are the main topics. The viewers actually enjoyed these parts of the play and they reacted positively. Even though it was humourous, those were some of the highlights of the play because of the controversies it contain.

b. Humour
As for humour, there were times when Carlos Celdran would share some jokes and funny pictures. These made the viewers laugh. It added enjoyment to the play as a whole. It helped the play and the topic itself not to be boring.

c. Fear
In terms of Silverlens, Livin’ La Vida Imelda was also the appeal for Silverlens. Our fear during the Marcos Administration because of all the negativity it entailed becomes a factor as to the consumers’ going to Silverlens. Carlos Celdran here becomes the “hero” exposing “truths” (or at least considerable rumors) about the Marcos Administration

Overall the appeal of Silverlens changes through time as they change the artist they are currently in relations with. The artist as to who Silverlens is exposing with their firm is a big factor when it comes to their message appeal.

4. Source Effects In terms of credibility Rachel Rillo and Isa Lorenzo are both knowledgeable in terms of Art. Isa Lorenzo studied in New York (International Center of Photography, New School University - Parsons School of Design) while Rachel Rillo studied at the Academy of Art College in San Francisco. Both of them have already had shows (solo and group) both locally and internationally. Overall in terms of credibility, Isa Lorenzo and Rachel Rillo, as the spokespeople of Silverlens, are well knowledgeable when it comes to Philippine Contemporary Art. For further information regarding their accomplishments see attached bios at the sources.

ii . Consumption Process

Need
In the case of Silverlens during our stay with the firm, we noticed that there are people who really went to the gallery for them to experience Philippine Contemporary Art. As what one of our respondents said, they went just to see the performance of Carlos Celdran’s Livin’ La Vida Imelda. They needed to experience what Silverlens has to offer because art has become part of their lives.

Want
There are people who go to galleries just because they heard something great about an exhibit or show. This is also evident on our stay at Silverlens. As what our respondents told us, they heard good feedbacks about the show and the venue. As a result, they wanted to go to Silverlens to experience what it has to offer. Also, specifically a foreign consumer of Livin ' La Vida Imelda told us that the Marcoses are very famous in their country and they wanted to know more about them.

Exchange
Those who go to Silverlens have to give something in exchange of the knowledge and experience they’ll get from the company. First of all, money. For them to watch and experience Livin’ La Vida Imelda, it would cost them one thousand one hundred pesos for the three-hour show, while five hundred fifty for students. Also, time is part of the exchange. For three hours, the consumers are inside the venue of Silverlens.

Cost and Benefits
The cost and benefits of the experience that Silverlens is offering can be seen during and after the show. The knowledge and realizations they get from the experience are the topics of their conversations. The show can either give them new informations or alter informations that they had in mind prior to watching the show. Also, the cost for them is the money they had to pay for them to experience the product. While its benefit is that either they gain knowledge or they had fun watching Carlos Celdran do his act.

Reaction
After the show, we asked our respondents how they will rate the show and the experience in Silverlens in a scale of one to ten, the latter being the highest. With an average of 8.62, we can say that the respondents are very satisfied with the experience. Also, they said that they would also recommend the show to their friends and colleagues. This is a positive reaction for Livin’ La Vida Imelda and of course Silverlens.

iii. Value Perception

Utilitarian Value- In Silverlens, the consumers gain more knowledge about Philippine Contemporary Art and about Imelda because of the show Livin’ La Vida Imelda. This shows the utilitarian value of Silverlens since these consumers came to Silverlens for a purpose. Hedonic Value- Some of the consumers came to Silverlens just to relax and enjoy the artworks and Carlos’ show. This shows a hedonic value of Silverlens since it is consumed simply because of pleasure.

iv. Relationship Quality

Figure 4.1 Satisfaction level

In figure 4.1, the consumers are very satisfied with an average of 8.62. Switching behaviour means that a consumer prefers a competing choice rather than the previously purchased choice (Babin & Harris, 2011). Some consumers that were interviewed went back to Silverlens 3 times or more already because they were very satisfied with their relationship with Silverlens. Some consumers are already loyal to Silverlens because they have already go back twice or thrice or even more. They chose to go to Silverlens rather than other galleries in the Philippines.

VI. Personality of Consumer

i. Motivation

a. Consumer Motivation

1. Homeostasis
This is a behaviour where in the people consume to maintain constant and normal blood stream. The consumers of Silverlens love art or afficionados and they normally go to art galleries or art fests so as a result being in Silverlens give them satisfaction in seeing and experiencing art. It helps them to remain constant and normal. Also, the consumers love watching Carlos Celdran’s shows so when they knew that he has a new show they went to watch it.

2. Self-improvement
Art is a fun way of learning and experiencing life. Silverlens’ consumers improve themselves through the products that the company has to offer. Being in Silverlens gives them more knowledge and knowings in seeing life on a different perspective. Also, art is a way of learning culture and history. Through Silverlens, their knowledge about these things broaden.

3. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
We can say that being in Silverlens gives people a sense of belongingness and a boost in self-esteem. Thus, achieving two parts in the hierarchy of needs, social and esteem.

Silverlens gives people a sense of belongingness in a way that they can be with people whom they have the same passion which is art. Also, it boosts their self-esteem because they get compliments from other people when they can say that they know something about art. 4. Utilitarian motivations
This is a desire to consume a product that can be used to fulfil things. For Silverlens, consumer felt that it is more convenient since the place or the venue is near their homes, so they don’t need to go too far to enjoy an art gallery. Some of the consumers only came to the show because their friend is part of the cast.

5. Hedonic motivations
This is when a person purchase or consume a product to feel emotionally satisfied and personally gratified. Carlos Celdran is very well-known and consumers like watch his shows, so when they knew that Carlos is organizing a show, Livin’ La Vida Imelda, they all went and watch it. b. Consumer involvement

1. Product involvement
In the gallery, most of the consumers like art. The Gallery or specifically the artworks has a high product involvement with the consumers since the consumers are art enthusiasts, which are highly involved in a certain category and are talking about the category art, some of the consumers in Silverlens regularly go to art galleries or Art fests to enjoy art.

2. Shopping involvement
Being in Silverlens enhances personal shopping value. Why? Because most of the consumers have heard about Carlos’ Livin’ La Vida Imelda and was hoping to have a chance to watch it. Since the show is only available in Silverlens for two months, it was a limited offer to the consumers. For Lost Days of Mariano Ching, it is displayed in a limit of 4-5 weeks.

3. Situational involvement
When a consumer purchase a product he/she does not necessarily be involve with it always, sometimes after the consumption of the product he/she will be forgetting the involvement he/she had. In Silverlens, the consumers are involve in the artworks and the show during their consumption period like during the show or when they are looking at the paintings, but after the show they don’t necessarily remember everything in their experience so their involvement in the product of silverlens is situational during the consumption period.

4. Enduring involvement
In the gallery, not only paintings and photographs are available, Carlos Celdran’s Livin’ La Vida Imelda was a part of the gallery. So the consumers won’t be limited to only using their sense of sight, now they can use their sense of hearing too. There is a part on the show were in the casts invited some consumers to dance around with them, which made the show interactive and gave the consumers a chance to participate in the show.

5. Emotional involvement
Related to the enduring involvement, emotional involvement in the gallery is that most of the consumers like Carlos’ show so when they watch the show they were really enjoying it.

ii. Personal Values and Emotional Expressiveness

a. Cognitive Appraisal Theory

1. Anticipation Appraisals
The consumers doesn’t have that much expectations for the gallery but there are some few points they mentioned like they were disappointed when they saw that the gallery only displayed a few artworks since they went early before the show so that they have a lot of time to roam around and enjoy the artworks displayed in the gallery.

2. Outcome Appraisal
The Consumers were satisfied and delighted; they enjoyed the show, the artworks and the gallery. For their rating for the overall experience in Silverlens, their answers ranges from 8 to 10, 10 being very much satisfied.

b. Mood and Memories
Being a gallery, Silverlens gives its consumers a sense of calmness, relaxation, quietness, and peacefulness. It is also interesting because of its location and the place itself. Silverlens is not the usual gallery which is big and spacious. It is just a small place where people can get a feeling of relief after experiencing the hustle and bustle of the city. It is a sanctuary for people who want to appreciate art at its finest form. Furthermore, Silverlens, being the first photography gallery in Southeast Asia, gives its consumers a unique experience of viewing art. It is not the usual art gallery where sculptures and painting are displayed. So, being in Silverlens opens the eyes and minds of its consumers to new form of art. They show Philippine Contemporary Art which is relatively new to the people. So, the consumers are still in the learning process of it. Also, Silverlens give its consumers a time to interact with its artists through talks and seminars that are being held in the gallery. It is an interactive learning experience for the consumers.

Moreover, Silverlens also show paintings and performance arts like Livin La Vida Imelda of Carlos Celdran. It is about the life of Imelda Marcos and the history of the Philippines during her time. The play which is being shown at Silverlens gives its consumer a feeling of fun, excitement, and at the same time nostalgia. This feeling of nostalgia is because of the fact that most of the viewers of the play experienced and saw the time when Imelda Marcos was still in power. The show gave them a better view of how Imelda and Ferdinand Marcos used their power to control the Filipino people. In a way, these art works in Silverlens give the consumers a way to see life in a different perspective. The moods and memories they get and feel from being in Silverlens are the reasons why they go to it.

c. Emotional Involvement
As stated above, Silverlens is a unique and interactive learning experience. Its consumers are being encouraged to be part of the shows and seminars. With these, high emotional involvement can be seen. The consumers take part on what they are consuming. They are experiencing the arts that are being served to them. Like in the show Livin La Vida Imelda, there are times when the people got involved and attached to the show. They laugh at jokes about Imelda and their hearts were crushed when the stories of the Martial Law are being discussed. These emotional involvements make the consumers’ stay at Silverlens more fulfilling and satisfying. It goes to show that they can relate to what Silverlens has to offer. The art works that Silverlens show in their galleries have ways to touch the consumers’ feelings and desires. After all, art is an expression of one’s self so maybe we can say that these consumers also feel the feelings of the artists in their masterpieces.

iii. Personality

a. Value Consciousness
The value consciousness of the consumers of Silverlens may vary and be subjective at the same time. This is because what Silverlens offers are artworks and experiences. Like what Rachel Rillo, co-director of Silverlens, said that before people really don’t see the reason why they need to pay a lot of money for a photo that you can print over and over again but Silverlens was able to change that mentality. Now, people go to Silverlens to see and experience Philippine Contemporary Art. Whatever are the reasons why people like these artworks and what is its value to them is relatively subjective to their own opinion.

b. Materialism
Why do these consumers buy art works from Silverlens? One of the reasons is because artworks’ value appreciate over time. We can see it in paintings and sculptures before and now people are starting to realize that it can also be done in photography. Moreover, these artworks are representations of who the consumers are and sometimes it also shows what they want to be. Silverlens is selling to its consumers the prestige that they can get from having these artworks.

c. Innovativeness
Like what was stated above, Silverlens is offering photography artworks to its consumers. This is something new because photography is not like paintings and sculptures because it can be reprinted and reproduced. But, these consumers are now more open to the possibility of photography to be like other art forms. It now has value and can be sold in the market. There is a market for photography artworks now and that is what Silverlens is targeting. Also, it is something different that an Art Gallery is displaying paintings at the same time have performance art, it’s not like the usual stage performance in a huge venue it is a theater performance. Furthermore, not only photography, Silverlens is trying to introduce art film to its consumers, another innovation in the world of art and its enthusiasts.

d. Complaint Proneness
Because art is what Silverlens is offering, there are different reactions to it. Some may have different opinions regarding to what they sell and promote like in the Livin La Vida Imelda, one of our respondents said that he will still see Imelda Marcos the way he knows her. This is something natural because art is a form of expression. One’s idea may not be the same to others. But, the consumers who disagree or have complaints about the artworks of Silverlens offers don’t voice it out because like what we are saying, Silverlens is just offering an experience, a different way to see life.

e. The Five-Factor Approach Model

Personality Trait
Description
Curious
The consumers of Silverlens want to know what Philippine Contemporary Art really is.
Artistic
As the saying goes, “It takes one to know one” Silverlens’ consumers are also artistic for them to appreciate what the company has to offer.
Openness to Experience
Because Philippine Contemporary Art, which is relatively new, is what Silverlens is trying to promote, its consumers should be open to new possibilities and things it could bring.
Extroversion
Before and after the show starts and ended, the people were very talkative.

iv. Brand Personality
a. Love and Passion
The consumers of Silverlens have strong feelings for the industry of arts. We can say that Silverlens also benefit from this, because as an institution for the arts, people also love their brand. People who love arts tend to also love Silverlens because they are the ones who showcase the works of the talented artists of Philippine Contemporary Art.

b. Self-Connection
As what we are saying, art is an expression of one’s self and these artworks that Silverlens try to sell are the connection of the consumers to the brand. These artworks are the representation of who the consumers want to be or what they have been desiring. These artworks are their desires and dreams. With these, the connection of Silverlens to its consumers becomes vital.

c. Commitment
We can say that the commitment of Silverlens’ consumer to the brand can be not so high. This is mainly because what they are trying to sell products which are one of a kind and it still depends whether the consumers like Silverlens’ artworks or not. The commitment of consumers to this type of industry cannot be gauged due to the fact that the products are diverse and all unique.

d. Interdependence
Like commitment, interdependence between Silverlens and its consumers is also relatively low. Because artworks are available in different museum and galleries and all of them are different, the consumers don’t really depend to the company for their product. But there are cases in which interdependence can also be seen. For example, if a consumer likes the work of a certain artist which Silverlens’ represent and is willing to buy all the artworks of that artist then we can say that that consumer depends on the brand Silverlens.

VII. Summary of Findings and Recommendations to Firm

Silverlens’ goal is to promote Philippine Contemporary Art not just locally but also abroad. Through the use of different forms of art like photography, visual, and performance art, they have been trying to bring to the people our culture and our own brand in the world of artistry. One can say that, with all the achievements that Silverlens had, they have been successful in bringing Philippine Contemporary Art to different people in different parts of the world. These achievements that Silverlens locally and even internationally paved way for them to be one of the best galleries here and abroad. It even gave them the idea and means to expand. Now, with three galleries around Metro Manila and one in Singapore, Silverlens will be more than capable in bringing brilliant Filipino artists and artworks to the world stage. It is through Silverlens that we can shine as one of the rising genre in contemporary art. Also, we can see that the firm is targeting not only the upper and middle classes but also the other social classes. When the director, Rachel, said that “We work a lot with museums like the National Museum, and MET wherein we put up shows so that it is in a museum context which means you are not pressured to buy anything. It’s just more educational.” Silverlens wants not only that the people be exposed to art but they want them to learn from it. Furthermore, we can say that Silverlens is trying to concentrate more on their international market as of the moment. With all the international art fairs they are joining, we can see that Silverlens tries to market Philippine Contemporary Art overseas. For the month of June, they are the only Southeast Asian Gallery who will be joining the prestigious art fair in Switzerland. But for them to achieve more, there are some rooms for improvement. On this part of the paper, we will discuss the summary of findings and the recommendation after our stint at the Silverlens gallery based on our interview with the resource person, interview with the consumers, and our own observations.

The products which Silverlens offer are artworks that can be classified as Philippine Contemporary Art. With the success of Livin’ La Vida Imelda at Silverlens, which is the first performance art they had shown in the venue, they can still opt to do more performance art there. It can’t be denied that performance arts brought more people to the venue and is a great source of income for the company. With this, they can still invite other famous performance artists to use the venue. The intimacy of the place also adds more character to the play being performed in Silverlens. It makes the performance more interactive and makes people feel that they are really part of the play. Moreover, for international market to appreciate Philippine Contemporary Art more, Silverlens should market products that they can relate to which can give knowledgeable informations.

The group also concluded that Silverlens is not yet a well-known brand even to some art enthusiasts and artists as well. Word-of-mouth and through online publicity (e.g. blogs and facebook) is not enough so to help in the promotional aspect of Silverlens, the group recommends more advertising strategies like holding events like seminars and lectures not just inside the Gallery but also outside of it for people to know what Silverlens is and what they are trying to do because there are still a lot of Filipinos out there that needs to be expose in this kind of art.

VIII. References

Babin, B., & Harris, E. (2011). CB 2 (Student Edition). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Color Meaning. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://www.color-wheel-pro.com/color-meaning.html

Lanctot, N. (2010, February 1). When white is wrong. ARTnews. Retrieved from http://www.artnews.com/2010/02/01/when-white-is-wrong/

Silverlens. Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.silverlensgalleries.com/

Tejero, C. (2013, February 10). Censored in the temple of the Lord: Who is Carlos Celdran, really?. Inquirer Lifestyle. Retrieved from http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/89193/censored-in-the-temple-of-the-lord-who-is-carlos-celdran-really

What about China?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/china.html

What about Singapore?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/singapore.html

What about Sweden?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/sweden.html

What about Norway?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/norway.html

What about the Philippines?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/philippines.html

What about the United States?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/united-states.html

IX. Appendix

Interview Questions for Industry Resource Person:

1. Nowadays, Philippine Contemporary Art is being acknowledged as a rising genre in the international art scene, How do you go about the investment you have to consider in promoting Philippine Contemporary art?
2. In choosing a represented artist/artworks to promote Phil. Contemporary art, what are your qualifications or criteria?
3. With the idea of art being for the higher social classes, How do you plan to reach the masses for them to also know Phil. contemporary art?
4. When starting out the company, who were the potential people you had in mind that would appreciate and take interest in what you had to offer them in terms of Philippine Contemporary Art?
5. For almost a decade of existence, how did Silverlens affect the perception and opinion of the people regarding Phil. Contemporary art?
6. What are your future plans for the company?

Mall-Intercept Questions:
1. Is this your first time here in Silverlens? If not, why did you come back?
2. Why did you watched Livin La Vida Imelda?
3. How did you find out about Silverlens?
4. How did you find out about Livin La Vida Imelda?
5. Did you have any expectations to Silverlens? How about Livin La vida Imelda? If yes, may we know what are those expectations?
6. Being here in Silverlens and experiencing what they had to offer, did anything change about your insight on Phil. Contemporary art?
7. Rate your overall experience from a scale of 1-10 for Silverlens and Livin La vida Imelda? (10 being very satisfied)

References: Babin, B., & Harris, E. (2011). CB 2 (Student Edition). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Color Meaning. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://www.color-wheel-pro.com/color-meaning.html Lanctot, N Silverlens. Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.silverlensgalleries.com/ Tejero, C What about China?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/china.html What about Singapore? What about Sweden?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/sweden.html What about Norway? What about the Philippines?. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/philippines.html What about the United States?

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