Sex Education

Topics: Congestion pricing, Road pricing, London congestion charge Pages: 4 (1066 words) Published: April 9, 2013
The Urban Environment: Traffic congestion in cities is a problem throughout the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of one official initiative undertaken to tackle this issue. Preparatory Project (First Draft)

Student Name: Temirlan Nurlanbayev
Student number: 201203814

Tutor: Jane Tate
Date of submission: November 22, 2012
Word count: 891

Nazarbayev University
University Preparatory course, UCL Language Centre
Traffic congestion is a serious problem for London (Quarmby 2008, 12). London has been affected by the worst traffic in Europe for a long time (Eggers et al. 2003). London suffer from traffic congestion and the travel unreliability. According to Eggers et al (2003) motorists have to spend half of their time in queues. Local Economy lost 2-4 million pounds every week in lost time. Furthermore long journeys times London lose their appealing as a business destination (Quarmby 2008, 12). Moreover congestion negatively effects on residents of London (Quarmby 2008, 12). Londoners suffer from poor air quality, searches shows that more than two thirds of emission come from traffic, also transport is the cause of climate changes (Mayor transportation strategy). Bad road network make difficulties for the emergency services and public transportation. Majority of adults (87 per cent) believe that congestion is a serious problem in the country (Quarmby 2008, 12). Since February 17, 2003, in order to improve transport motion, private cars in central areas during week days has charged a fee (Litman 2011).

London is the first major European city, which made radical steps in way of solving problem with traffic. Program’s success suggests applicability in other cities, so many cities around the world had been observing the case with interest (Santos 2008, 177). Litman(2011) note that central London’s streets were slightly expanded since medieval ages, so because of limited road capacity, London particularly suitable for congestion pricing. The London...
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