University Paper

Topics: Air pollution, Smog, National Ambient Air Quality Standards Pages: 11 (5882 words) Published: October 27, 2014

Using examples, compare and contrast: urban air quality issues affecting regions in Europe and Asia. Introduction:
Air Pollution is a growing problem (Elsom, intro)
To highlight large disparities in urban air quality problems, focus on developed countries like UK with long history in research and policy vs developing countries still in the process of industrialization. Comparisons to show that due to different sources, different stage of development and economic structure, different effects and policy. But air pollution problems are global, interconnectedness. Also, difficulties in research apply to both due to changing science. Sources of Pollution:

Ground level ozone Aviation, longer driving distances
Page 23: International shipping and aviation
In Europe, Nox emissions from shipping are 32% of land based NOx emissions and are expected to exceed these sources by 2020. Shipping emissions provide a dominant source of urban air pollution in coastal areas and may be transported large distances O3 precursors emitted during landing and takeoff are regulated. Despite 40 years of control, O3 remains a serious problem in Europe. Increase in background O3 not fully understood by thought to be due to mainly emission increases in other Northern Hemisphere countries.

(Elsom Reading): London and changes in nature of location nand employment. Shopping centres, less cycling etc. Megacities
And developing, disel powered fleet, black smoke, greater particulare emissions. (China Reading) Since 1978, increasing number of migrants to urban areas. From 1980 to 2005, urban population in China increased from 19.6 to 40.5%. Megacities at the epxpene of the environment and likely to continue into the future. Calcutta, rickshaws. (Bhaumik in Hill)

(Elsom Reading) Dehli traffic.
Smithson Page 165, Urban Pollution
Dense fogs associated with coal burning are a feature of the 19th century. Pollutants trapped within the urban boundary layers affects air quality. Industry can be locally important but much pollution comes from wider spread sources such as road transport and domestic heating. Patt: Ground level ozone:

Smithson Initially invisible in gaseous form, chemical reactions can take place between these pollutant gases and the sun’s rays to produce chemical mix known as photochemical smog. More serious in developing countries. Data on how Asian pacific basin countries has worse air quality. Dependence on coal and difference in energy generation as a reason for why Biomass use in urban areas such as Beijing, Calcutta still experience this. And developing, disel powered fleet, black smoke, greater particulare emissions. China, coal burning. (Chameides in Hill)

(Elsom Reading): Cities in china.
Production centred in many of these cities.
Coal no longer a problem, moved beyond this point.
(Elsom reading) UK: domestic use of coal eliminated
(Patt Reading) Shift in western Europe from coal to oil and natural gas. Problems like acid rain become less obvious visually by late 1960s. Since 1982, Norway, Sweden, Finland proposed uniform 30% cut in sulphur emissions. Slow by steady diplomacy for others to join (tote-board diplomacy). Other protocols followed, more countries signing. But developing and developed have different sources in some. Developing:

Megacities
More serious in developing countries. Data on how Asian pacific basin countries has worse air quality. Dependence on coal and difference in energy generation as a reason for why Biomass use in urban areas such as Beijing, Calcutta still experience this. And developing, disel powered fleet, black smoke, greater particulare emissions. China, coal burning. (Chameides in Hill)

(Elsom Reading): Cities in china.
Production centred in many of these cities.
(China Reading) Since 1978, increasing number of migrants to urban areas. From 1980 to 2005, urban population in China increased from 19.6 to 40.5%. Megacities at the epxpene of the environment...

Bibliography: Anderson, H. R., de Leon, A. P., Bland, J. M., Bower, J. S., & Strachan, D. P. (1996). Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987-92. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 312(7032), 665.
Elsom, D.M (1996) Smog Alert: Managing Urban Air Quality, Earthscan 
Hao, J., & Wang, L
Levy, J. I., Buonocore, J. J., & Von Stackelberg, K. (2010). Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment.Environmental Health, 9(65), 1-12.
Mage, D., Ozolins, G., Peterson, P., Webster, A., Orthofer, R., Vandeweerd, V., & Gwynne, M. (1996). Urban air pollution in megacities of the world.Atmospheric Environment, 30(5), 681-686.
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