Scientific Management Theory
The scientific management approach was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor at the end of the 19th century to improve labor productivity by analyzing and establishing work flow processes.
Scientific management theory is the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done. It is the systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency.
Frederick Taylor once described scientific management as “seventy-five percent science and twenty-five percent common sense.” He made it clear that the goal of scientific management was to use systematic study to find the “one best way” of doing each task. To do that, managers must follow the four principles.
1. Develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which replaces the old rule of thumb method.
2. Scientifically select, train, teach, and develop the worker.
3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done according to the principles of the science that has been developed.
4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.
Taylor argued that following these principles would benefit both management and workers. Workers would earn more pay, and management more profits.
Above all, Taylor felt these principles could be used to determine a “fair day’s
Work,” that is, what an average worker could produce at a reasonable pace, day
In and day out. Once that was determined, it was management’s responsibility to pay workers fairly for that “fair day’s work.”
In essence, Taylor was trying to align management and employees so that what was good for employees was also good for management. In this way, he felt, workers and managers could avoid conflicts.
1.1 Contributions Of Scientific Management.
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