Identify the main types of state and independent schools:
Describe the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and school governance:
The four main types of state school all receive funding from local authorities. They all follow the National Curriculum and are regularly inspected by Ofsted. These are:
* Community schools
A community school is run by the local authority, which: employs the staff, owns the land and buildings, and decides which ‘admissions criteria’ to use (these are used to allocate places if the school has more applicants than places)
* Foundation and Trust schools
Foundation schools are run by their own governing body, which employs the staff and sets the admissions criteria. Land and buildings are usually owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation. A Trust school is a type of foundation school which forms a charitable trust with an outside partner. For example, a business or educational charity. The decision to become a Trust school is taken by the governing body, with parents having a say.
* Voluntary-aided schools
Voluntary-aided schools are mainly religious or 'faith' schools, although anyone can apply for a place. As with foundation schools, the governing body: employs the staff and sets the admissions criteria. School buildings and land are normally owned by a charitable foundation, often a religious organisation. The governing body contributes to building and maintenance costs.
* Voluntary-controlled schools
Voluntary-controlled schools are similar to voluntary aided schools, but are run by the local authority. As with community schools, the local authority: employs the school's staff and sets the admissions criteria. School land and buildings are normally owned by a charity, often a religious organisation, which also appoints some of the members of the governing body.
Academies are independently managed, all-ability schools. They are set up by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups in partnership with the Department for Education and the local authority. Together they fund the land and buildings, with the government covering the running costs.
* City Technology Colleges
These are independently managed, non-fee-paying schools in urban areas for pupils of all abilities aged 11 to 18. They are geared towards science, technology and the world of work, offering a range of vocational qualifications as well as GCSEs and A levels.
* Faith schools
Faith schools are mostly run in the same way as other state schools. However, their faith status may be reflected in their religious education curriculum, admissions criteria and staffing policies.
* Grammar schools
Grammar schools select all or most of their pupils based on academic ability.