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TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations

By rjwardy Mar 23, 2014 5501 Words
TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations
1. Know the structure of education from early years to post-compulsory education. 1.1Summarise entitlement and provision for early years education. The government has set the provision that all three and four year olds are entitled to free education of fifteen hours in a nursery for thirty eight weeks in the year. This is in effect up to the compulsory age of going to school which is usually the term after their fifth birthday. These free hours are available to use in a range of early-years settings such as day nurseries, nursery schools, pre-schools, play groups, children’s centres and childminders. 1.2Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stage(s) and school governance. Early Years Education:

Reception and nursery in independent and maintained schools •Day nurseries
Sure Start Children’s Centres
Childminders
Playgroups
Breakfast and after-school clubs
Holiday clubs
All the above mentioned settings are required to meet national set standards as inspected by Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education). These also have to follow a structure of learning called the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). Independent or Private Schools:

These schools are independent in their governance and finances and are not affiliated with the local authority (LA). Independent schools are funded by tuition fees paid by the parents and income from investors. Independent schools do not have to follow the national curriculum and the acceptance policy is controlled and administered by the head teacher along with the governing body. These independent schools have to register with the Department for Education (DFE). Free Schools:

Free schools are non profit making, state funded school that accept students of all ability. These schools can be set up by a varied range of bodies such as universities, educational groups and parents. Free schools have to meet set standards and are expected to conform to the same Ofsted inspections as state schools.

Community Schools:
This is a category of state funded school which is only run by the Local Education Authority (LEA). The Staff is employed by the LEA and the land and buildings of the school are owned by the LEA. The schools governors are responsible for the running of the school. The LEA also decides which admissions criteria to use if the school has more applicants than places. These criteria could be: •If you live in the area of the school

If the child has any siblings at the school
If the child has a disability which makes travelling to a remote school difficult

The LEA provides support services, such as, psychological and SEN services. Pupils in a community school follow the national curriculum. Community schools also promote and develop strong links with the community by offering the use of their schools facilities and providing services such as childcare and adult learning programmes. Voluntary Controlled/Faith Schools:

Voluntary controlled schools can be also known as religious or faith schools. In a voluntary controlled school the land and buildings are owned by a charity which is more often than not a religious organisation such as a church. The LEA employs the staff and also provides support services for the school. The charity appoints some of the members of the governing body although the LEA is responsible for running the school. Voluntary Aided Schools:

Much like voluntary schools the land and buildings are usually owned by a charity such as a church but the governing body is responsible for running the school and also contributes to building and maintenance costs. Voluntary aided schools are partly funded by the local education authority, partly by the charity and by the governing body who will also employ its own staff. Pupils who attend a voluntary aided school have to follow the national curriculum and support services are provided by the local education authority if needed. Trust Schools:

These are state funded foundation schools which receive extra support from a charitable trust that is made up of partners e.g. business or educational charities who work together for the benefit of the school. Any maintained school that is a primary, secondary or special school can become a trust school and will remain local authority maintained. Having a trust status will enable schools to raise standards through strengthening new and existing long term partnerships between schools and external partners, as well as broaden opportunities for pupils and support a child’s all round development. Specialist schools:

Children who have a statement of special educational needs (SEN) can and usually are educated in mainstream schools if the school has provisions that are suitable for that child, however children with SEN can also be educated in specialist schools. Special schools usually take children with particular types of special needs. The majority of a schools funding is provided by the department for education and skills (DFES) through the local education authority, however not all schools for pupils with SEN are maintained by the local authority and are funded by fees that are paid by the parents or charitable trust funds.

1.3Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults. Further Education (FE):
Further full-time education could be in school, Sixth-form College, a college of further education/tech. You can study for qualifications such as A levels, International or AQA Baccalaureate, BTECs, Diplomas, OCRs (now called Cambridge Nationals) and vocational courses i.e. NVQs. Positives: Higher level career choices and opportunities. Many courses free for students straight out of High School. Negatives: Can be expensive for post 17/18 students. No income whilst doing course unless it’s a night or part-time course. Employment, Apprenticeships and Work-based Learning:

Positives: You can train full-time or work and train at the same time. You can work towards an apprenticeship which will offer you the opportunity to gain further work-based qualifications. Some apprenticeships can lead to university level study and can be an alternative to higher education. Negatives: Wages usually minimal while training. There could belong working hours together with long study hours. Get a job:

Positives: Earn money and learn new skills in a more hands on and practical way. Negatives: Lack of training could affect your future prospects. Join the armed forces:
Positives: Opportunity to travel, job security, opportunities to achieve a Higher Education qualification. Negatives: Long commitment, loss of freedom, potential danger, time away from family. University:

Higher Education courses such as Degrees
Positives: A must for those wishing to be doctors, architects, scientists. Greatly increases chance of employment in a specific career choice. Negatives: Expensive, time consuming
TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations
2. Understand how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities.
2.1 Explain the strategic purpose of:
School Governors:
The Governors usually consist of parents, teachers, SEN coordinators, Chaplains (faith schools) These are volunteers who make sure the school provides good quality education for its pupils. These people are responsible for the recruitment of teachers, teaching assistants and head teachers. Set policies and ensure they are implemented and followed in the school. Observe how the head runs the school. Set the budget for the school. Senior Management Team:

These usually consist of the head, deputy head, heads of subjects and office staff. They are responsible for the day-to-day running of the school, personnel, finance (spending the budget), curriculum (EYFS, Key Stage 1 and 2), HR, staff development, assessment timetable, grade reviews, all business matters. SENCO (Special Educational Needs Coordinator)

These coordinators are responsible for the development of students with special educational needs as well as gifted and talented pupils. They work with parents and other professionals such as speech therapists, physiotherapists, social workers and liaise with educational physiologists. They are responsible to coordinate the provision for any child to receive the curriculum. Teachers:

Teachers are responsible for the planning and delivery of the curriculum and are to create a safe, positive and disciplined learning environment. Providing data in relation to each student required for the School recording and reporting system. Following and maintaining standards of student care and discipline in and outside of the classroom through the guidelines of the Schools Policies.

Support Staff:

These consist of Teaching Assistants, Higher Learning TAs, Learning Mentors, Counsellors, ITC technicians Welfare staff (dinner ladies), cleaning staff.

They are responsible for assisting with the delivery of the curriculum. Like the teachers, to following and maintain standards of student care and discipline in and outside of the classroom, for Pastoral care, the maintenance of the school premises and Communication Technology. Uphold all school policies

2.2 Explain the roles of external professionals who may work with a school.

The role of these external professionals is important as many of the families may not be able to afford to see such professionals on a private basis. With these professionals actually visiting schools there would be an increase in attendance as children would not have to take time away from school to receive treatment.

Speech therapists:
These may work with children who have a speech impediment such as a stutter or lisp. These also may work with SEN pupils.

Physiotherapists:
Care plan for children with reoccurring motor problems, the handicapped and other movement related afflictions.

ICT Technicians:
Schools may require expert advice on technical issues that the ‘in house’ ITC Tech cannot resolve.

Sports Groups:
Schools regularly seek outside companies to run PE and extracurricular activities in specific sporting areas.

Foreign Language Teachers:
More and more primary schools are bringing in teachers to deliver foreign language lessons.

Specialist Subject Teachers/Tutors:
Ex professionals or teachers with a specific skill set such as Art and Music are being brought in for classes to expand the knowledge base on the pupils. TDA 3.2: Schools as organisation
3. Understand school ethos, mission, aims and values.
3.1 Explain how the ethos, mission, aims and values of a school may be reflected in working practice. Ethos:
Dictionary definition: The disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, culture, or movement. The Ethos of a school is more related to the beliefs and feelings of a school. The Ethos of the school should be recognisable when entering the school environment as it is part of the nature and daily practice of the staff and pupils there. It is usually clearly set out for the whole school to be aware of and is reinforced through daily activities. It enforces that children’s safety is paramount and that children a.re at the centre of everything. The 5 Every Child Matters aims are often taken into account when developing the ethos and mission of a school these are: •Being healthy: deals with the extent to which the school contributes to the development of healthy lifestyles in children. This will include ways in which schools promote physical, mental, emotional and sexual health by encouraging sport and exercise, healthy eating and drinking water, the ability to detect and manage stress levels in pupils, having high self-esteem and discouraging drug taking, smoking and drinking alcohol. •Staying safe: deals with the extent to which the school contributes to making sure that pupils stay safe from harm. This includes complying with child protection legislation and policies, CRB checks, protecting pupils from bullying, harassment and other forms of maltreatment, discrimination, crime, anti-social behaviour, sexual exploitation, violence and other dangers. Ensuring that all staff are properly trained. •Enjoying and achieving: deals with the extent to which pupils of the school make progress with regard to their learning and their personal development. Evidence to evaluate this includes arrangements to assess and monitor learners’ progress, support learners with poor attendance and behaviour, and meet the needs of potentially underachieving groups. Also, promoting social, cultural, sporting and recreational activities. • Making a positive contribution: deals with the development of self-confidence and forward thinking behaviour in pupils, their understanding of rights and responsibilities, and encouragement to take an active role in the community. There should also be a focus on enabling young people to develop appropriate independent behaviour and to avoid engaging in antisocial behaviour. •Achieving economic well-being – deals with how the school prepares pupils for the ‘real world’ to acquire the social and academic skills and knowledge needed for employment and to be economically independence.

Mission:
The mission is based upon what the school intend to achieve in a more physical and academic way as set out by the head teacher. This is often seen as a motto that is short and easy to remember. The decision as to what the school’s mission statement should be is often defined by the type of school and its outside links. For example, a faith school, like the school where I work, would more than likely include reference to its church or God. Aims:

The Aims of a school are usually set by the head teacher in collaboration with the school governors and are set out in the school prospectus. Values:
The values of a school are based on moral code. If a school is a church or religious based school, many of the values will be derived from religious works
3.2 Evaluate methods of communicating a school’s ethos, mission, aims and values. Prospectus:
The bulk of all the attributes can be communicated within this leaflet or booklet designed to attract admissions. Advantages: Everything all together in one place.
Disadvantages: Depending on the size there may be too much information and the overall message may be confused. Newsletters:
Many schools send newsletters weekly/monthly or each term to inform parents of aims and values. Advantages: Up to date information, targeting all parents at once. Disadvantages: No guarantee the parent/guardian will receive the letter of even read it is they do get it. Diaries:

Pocket diaries are used by some schools to give to parents.
Advantages: A functional object so there is more chance of parents using it. Disadvantages: May only use the calendar and not read or take any notice of other information printed on it. It is small and easy to lose. Website:

Websites are an interactive medium most schools utilise for up-to-date information regarding anything going on at the school and can also carry information on the school’s ethos, mission, aims and values. Advantages: Easy to access, can store vast amounts of information, user friendly. Disadvantages: Not everyone is computer literate; people may not have access to the internet or even own a computer, tablet or smart phone. School Planners:

Planners can be sent home every evening and weekends and are collected or viewed in school hours. Advantages: A good gauge of the work that the pupils are doing at home and parents have constant access to what they are doing in school. Letters can be sent home in these which might increase the chance of the parent receiving it. Disadvantages: Parent may not take an active role in their child’s development. Some parents may not read or write and may not know the English language. Assemblies and Masses:

In faith/church schools, such as St Columba’s where I work, masses and assemblies are the main way the school communicates and promotes the school’s ethos, mission, aims and values. Advantages: All the pupils are in one place at the same time. Parents can go to the Church and are invited to the full school assembly every Friday afternoon. Disadvantages: Not all parents have the time in the day to attend these masses and assemblies due to work commitments. Not all of the parents are practicing religion or do not have an interest in attending church. TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations

4. Know about the legislation affecting schools.
4.1 Summarise the laws and codes of practice affecting work in schools. The Children’s Act 2004/2006:
This Act emphasises the importance of safeguarding children and young people within an educational setting. If a learner discloses neglect or abuse; an establishment should have instructions to help the learner. This could be referral to an outside organisation or dealt with internally. It was amended in 2006 to place more responsibility on local authorities to; improve well-being for young children, and reduce inequalities, ensure there is sufficient childcare so parents can work, ensure local childcare providers are trained, introduce the Early Years Foundation and reform the regulation system for childcare, with two new registers of childcare providers, to be run by Ofsted. The Education Act 2002:

With this Act schools are required to work alongside other community-based organizations and develop links and a shared of ‘sense of belonging’ while valuing the contributions of ‘different individuals and different communities. The Equality Act 2010:

This Act supports professionals, pupils and parents who may be discriminated against age, disability, race, religion, belief, gender and sexual orientation. The Act identifies direct and indirect discrimination. Teachers must understand the importance of

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974:
The act suggests that all workers are entitled to work in a safe environment where risks are properly controlled. Teachers must also adhere to the Every Learner Matters Agenda created by the government. The IFL devised Codes of Professional Practice which teachers must follow. The LLUK (Lifelong Learning UK) suggest Professional Standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector. Data Protection Act 1998:

This Act was passed by Parliament to control the way information is handled and to give legal rights to people who have information stored about them. In regards to a school setting, no information is to be disclosed verbally or documented by any of the staff. Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice 2001: Under the SEN code of practice parents and SEN children have the right to a mainstream education. However this has meant that more children are integrated into mainstream schools, which has had a positive effect on all pupils. The Disability Discrimination Act has meant that all schools built from this date have to make provision for pupils with disabilities. For example they need to have ramps, lifts and disabled toilets. The Act also means that pupils should not be excluded from any aspect of school life due to disabilities. Human Rights Act 1998:

This Act gives legal effect in the UK to certain fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). These rights not only affect matters of life and death like freedom from torture and killing, but also affect your rights in everyday life: what you can say and do, your beliefs, your right to a fair trial and many other similar basic entitlements. Everyone has the right to education (although does not mean the right to go to a particular school), the right to respect for private and family life and the right to freedom of expression. Restraint of pupils is permitted under the act to prevent crime and injury to others, although the school should have a policy on this and all school staff should be aware of its guidelines for its use. The Freedom of Information Act 2000:

Any person may request in writing information held by a school, schools have a duty to provide advice and assistance to anyone asking for the information, however there are some cases which schools will need to protect the information which may be confidential. The Department of Education has produced guidelines to give advice when dealing with request for information. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989:

This Act states that all children have an equal right to education, have a right to freedom of religion, have a right to express their own views and opinions, have a right to be protected from any discrimination. Children’s education should develop each child’s personality, talents and abilities to the fullest and the best interest of the child are the primary consideration.

4.2 Explain how legislation affects how schools work.
Acts such as The Children’s Act of 2004/2006 came in alongside the Every Child Matters framework to address issues of care, welfare and discipline. There are five basic outcomes for children and young people under Every Child Matters these are; Be Healthy, Stay Safe, Enjoy and Achieve, Make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. These points are explained in more detail in section 3 – 3.2 page 7.

4.3 Explain the roles of regulatory bodies relevant to the education sector which exist to monitor and enforce the legislative framework. General bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive:
The Health and Safety Executives (HSE) are a UK government body that are responsible for monitoring government legislation for Health and Safety at school. The HSE plays an additional role in producing advice on Health and Safety issues and guidance on relevant legislation. The HSEs function is to prevent injuries, ill health as well as making sure that teachers and other people with responsibility are checking any major risks from activities on and off the school premises. Things the HSE will check within a school are: toilet facilities for staff and pupils, the condition and maintenance of the school premises, water supplies, weather protection, lighting, heating and ventilation, properly maintained flooring and that the correct measures are in place to reduce the risk of slipping on wet surfaces, the equipment that the children play or use is not faulty or rusted and that the playground surfaces are up to standard.

On school trips and off site visits HSE will be carried out on: •Any special educational or medical needs of the students. •The age, competence, and fitness of the pupils along with the usual standard of behaviour. •Adult to student ratio.

The proficiency and experience of the accompanying adults. •Modes of transport, journey routes and location visit as well as any emergency procedures.

School specific regulatory bodies:
Ofsted are responsible for carrying out inspections of schools to ensure that the quality of the service provided is up to standard for every individual child. During an inspection they will gather evidence based on the practice they are observing as well as what they learn from the people using the service. They then use this evidence and other information that is gathered to make a professional judgement on the service offered and it will then be published in an Ofsted report. The report will contain the quality of provision in the National Curriculum subjects and aspects of childcare, social care, education as well as learning and skills. Ofsted will also act as a regulator in checking that the people, premises and the services that are provided are suitable to care and educate children and potentially at risk young people. If childcare or a child’s social care provider does not meet the adequate or required standards then Ofsted will need them to take the necessary actions to improve their facilities. TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations

5. Understand the purpose of school policies and procedures.
5.1 Explain why schools have policies and procedures.
All schools must have certain policies and procedures, which they follow. These are called statutory policies. Many schools however produce a range of policies that will cover all aspects of school life including things that affect the school, children or staff and teaching and learning.

5.2 Summarise the policies and procedures schools may have relating to: •Staff and Pupil welfare
Teaching and Learning
Equality, diversity and inclusion
Parental engagement
StaffPupil Welfare and Parental EngagementTeaching and Learning Pay policySafeguarding & child protection policyCurriculum (for each subject) Performance ManagementHealth & SafetyEarly Years policy

Grievance policyDrugs AwarenessTeaching & Learning
Smoking policyBehavior ManagementSEN Policy
Alcohol and Drugs policyPersonal, social and health educationPlanning and Assessment policy Disability Equality policyAnti-bullying Homework policy
Race EqualityAttendance Marking policy
ComplaintsSex and RelationshipsAssessment policy
Continuing Professional Development PolicyCharging and Remissions policyCitizenship policy Display policyCollective Worship policyPolicy for Creative Learning First Aid policyCommunity Cohesion Policy

Governor Visits policy Equality and Diversity policy
Disciplinary Policy

Policies for staff:
These policies are put in place to protect the staffs’ welfare and their rights within a school setting and to support staff in their management of situations they may be involved in. Every policy should outline its aims, purpose and responsibilities the staff will have. Examples of policies relating to staff:

Anti bullying policy: will outline what a particular school will do to prevent and tackle bullying. How the school will discuss, monitor and deal with bullying. All parents/carers should receive this policy when their child enrols at the school. Whistle blowing policy: will provide avenues for staff to raise genuine concerns about other members of staff and will allow a member of staff to take the matter further if they dissatisfied with the governing body or local authorities response. The policy will also assure staff of the steps that will be taken to protect themselves from reprisals in whistle blowing real worries. Pupil welfare:

Discipline policy: which will show that the school will encourage positive behaviour which will enhance opportunities for children to learn and develop, and establish acceptable patterns of behaviour that will encourage a sense of responsibility towards others. Child protection policy: will consist of key elements in protecting children and young people, these elements being: To ensure that the appropriate steps will be taken in checking the suitability of staff and volunteers who work with children and young people in a school environment. Raise awareness of child protection issues and providing children with the skills and knowledge they require to keep themselves safe. Develop and apply procedures to identify and report cases, or suspected cases of abuse. Support victims of abuse in accordance with their arranged child protection plan. Establish safe surroundings in which children and young people can learn and develop to the best of their ability. Teaching and learning:

These include curriculum policies, an early year’s policy, special educational needs policy, planning and assessment policy and marking policy. The aims and missions of these policies are to provide safe, stimulating learning environments for pupils and teachers. These policies are put in place to ensure that all children have an equal opportunity to the schools curriculum so that learning is differentiated to fit each child’s individual learning needs and capabilities. Equality, diversity and inclusion:

These policies are set in place to ensure that all children, regardless of their background, abilities or disabilities, race or religious beliefs have equal access to the school and its curriculum and to be treated equally in every aspect of school life. The Gifted and Talented policy outlines the way that the school identifies what ‘gift and talented’ means and also identifies the procedures and measures that are used in supporting a child or young person who is gifted and talented. Equal Opportunities Policy is set in place in education to ensure that children and staff recognise that discrimination on the foundation of colour, culture, origin, sex or ability is not acceptable and to make sure that all staff feels valued, supported and have the appropriate advice and encouragement for professional development. Children are to be seen as an individual and each child‘s education is to be developed in relation to their needs and abilities. Parental engagement:

Parents and families play a fundamental role in helping children achieve their full potential in education by supporting them in their learning and developing within their own homes. By working together with the child’s school parents can create a learning environment to help reinforce lessons that are learned at school. Homework policies contribute towards building responsibilities and self discipline in a student. Homework should provide a student with the opportunity to apply the information they have learned in class, complete unfinished class assignments and develop independence within the individual. 5.3 Evaluate how school policies and procedures may be developed and communicated. All staff should be shown in detail the most important and most frequently used policies when they begin in employment as a part of their induction. All staff should have access to the documentation whether it is posted on an internal network, disk or hard copy in a file. All staff should be made aware of any additions or changes the governing body makes to the procedures. An effective way in which these policies could be developed might be liaising with teachers and parents to obtain other standpoints and opinions on them. Researching other schools policies and procedures to see how they differ from your own. TDA 3.2: Schools as organisations

6. Understand the wider context in which schools operate.
6.1 Summarise the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice. The role of the National Governments Department of Education (DfE) is to be responsible for children’s education and services. They are responsible for setting the National Curriculum and EYFS system as well as the development of the the five stages of Every Child Matters as outlined in section 3.1 Page 7. They also run the schools league tables. Other aspects of the National Governments involvement in the school system include: •Promoting integrated working for people who work with children. •Developing voluntary and community organisations (non-governmental) •Fund research into educational projects concerning children. The roles of the Local Government in education are mainly concerning advice and support for those working in schools. The Local Authority and Education (LEA) follow the Department for Education (DfE) guidelines. Setting specific standards in relation to the safeguarding of children, for example enhanced CRB disclosures; this applies to independent recruiters along with Local Authorities (LA). They aim to recognise private sector supply agencies and LA’s who demonstrate the standards of good practice in managing and providing supply teachers for schools, and raising the standard of supply teaching. Teachers must also be registered with the General Teaching Council (GTCE). 6.2 Explain the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families. A National Governments incentive to help schools started two new funding programmes introduced by the Department for Children, Schools and Families as part of the Government Children Plan: •Every Child a Talker (ECAT)

Social and Emotional Aspects of Development (SEAD)
These were introduced to develop the skills of early year’s specialists. These programmes were designed to tackle the need for children in schools to experience a language rich setting through staff in making sure that they work successfully with families. SEAD helps staff in school gain the knowledge and understanding to help communicate with parents more effectively so they may be able to support their child’s social and emotional needs better. The Every Child Matters paper set out a national agenda and plan with the aim of providing more services that were accessible for the needs of children, young people and families which stated that schools and other child care providers must demonstrate ways that they could work towards each of the outcomes. The five key aims and intentions are explained in detail in section 3 – 3.2 page 7.

6.3 Explain the roles of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools. There are numerous organisations that will have an impact on the work in schools. Multi agency teams bring together professionals from different agencies to provide an integrated way of supporting children, young people and their families. As well as giving advice and guidance to teachers and other staff in schools. It is a way of working together that guarantees children and young people who need additional support have the professional that is needed to give them that support. Organisations and professionals who work with schools are: Social Workers, Early Years consultants, Youth Workers, Police and Youth Workers.

Social Workers: their central role is to offer help and assistance to children, young people and families dealing with children at risk. They play a major role of gathering information about a pupil’s social, emotional and behavioural development in school. Conducting interviews with the student as well as making classroom observations. They will conduct interviews with senior members of staff and parents on strategies that will benefit the child in school. Children’s Services: these offer support and advice to teachers and other members of staff in school. They work closely with both children and parents to identify, assess and respond to a child’s additional need and to ensure that the appropriate intervention is given to that child in order to develop their learning within school.

Youth Services: promote the personal, educational and social development of young people aged 13 to 19, they respond to the needs and interests of young people and attempt to resolve issues involving health awareness and education by developing positive skills and attitudes within a young person.. Youth Workers have an influential role in empowering young individuals to take on issues that are affecting their lives.

Police: the Police hold debates in schools to children and young people on issues such as knife and gun crime as well as anti social behaviour to discourage pupils from that behaviour. They hold open discussions in order for the child or young person to give their opinions and views. National Health Service: many NHS professionals visit schools to teach the pupils a range of health related issues such as dental hygienists who ensure children are taking proper care of their teeth. Other professionals for the NHS include speech therapists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists.

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