1.Know the different types of schools in the education sector. 1.1. Identify the main types of state and independent schools. 1.2 Describe the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stages and school governance. A state school is referred to a school that is funded by the government and is offered to all children without charge. An independent school is not funded by the government and relies on tuition fees, gifts etc to fund the school, so is independent on its finances. Sometimes these schools can be known as private schools. There are also other different types of schools that we can have such as: A Community School
These can be ran and owned by the Local Authority (LA)
The LA can support the schools and encourage them to have links with the local community The LA can determine the admissions into the school
LA provide the support and services needed
They develop the use of the schools facilities by the local groups A Foundation School
A foundation school is run by their own governing body
The governing body determines the admissions made by the LA
The schools buildings and land are owned by the governing body or a charitable organisation A Trust School
A trust school is a charitable trust with an outside partner such as a business A trust school can be a type of a foundation school
The school has to buy any support resources needed by themselves Any decisions to be made are made through the governing body and the parents of the pupils Voluntary Schools- Voluntary Aided
These are mainly religious schools
These schools can be attended by any child from any religion Can be ran by its own governing body
The buildings and land are owned by religious organisations or charity They are funded partly by the governing body, partly charity and by the L.E.A. that provides any support services.
These schools are similar to voluntary aided schools
The buildings and land are usually owned by a charity which are religious organisations They are funded by the LA which also employs the staff
They also provide support and services
Usually are secondary schools which can apply for specialist status to develop one or two specialism’s Additional funding will be received for this
92% of secondary schools in England have specialist status
Special schools can also apply for specialist schools status to be given for a SEN specialism under one of the four areas of the SEN Code of Practise. Independent schools(are also known as Private Schools)
Funded by the fees paid by the parents, other incomes from investments, gits and charities Don’t follow the national curriculum
Head teachers and governors decide on the admission policy
2,300 independent schools in the uk
Monitored by ISI(Independent Schools Inspectorate).
Academies get funding from sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups and from the government Ran by the governing body not the local council
Dont follow the national curriculum
Can select pupils on their ability
Must teach English, Maths and Science
Free to change day and term lengths
Pre schools and nursery education from the ages of 0 – 5 years includes: pre school groups, playgroups and nursery’s. For pupils aged 4-5 there are reception classes in primary schools. After pre-school and nursery we have primary education which is for 5-11 year olds. It includes primary schools, infant schools, junior schools, first schools, pupils aged 4-5 years in primary schools in Northern Ireland, pupils aged 8-11 years in middle schools and pupils aged 11-12 years in lower secondary education in Scotland. Secondary education is for pupils aged between 11-16 years, which includes middle schools for children aged between 11-13, high schools, grammar schools, academies, city technology colleges, pupils aged 12-16 years in lower secondary education in Sotland. After Secondary education you have further education for 16-18 year olds which includes sixth form schools/colleges, further education colleges and specialist colleges. Full time education has become compulsory for all children upto the age of 17 from 2013 and upto 18 from 2015.Pupils will have to either stay at school upto this age or carry on with some sort of course at college. The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. 2.2 Describe the roles of external professionals who may work with a school There are many professionals that could work with a school to help the pupils get a better education. They are professionals such as: Educational Psychologist
Every school has a educational psychologist working for them that is provided to them by the special educational needs department. They offer support by providing assessments and observations to young people. Planning provision for those with additional needs with the SENCO, teachers and parents for the individual with SEN. Speech and Language Therapist
Speech and language therapists work with pupils on speech, language and communication problems in the producing and understanding of language. They work from alternative locations usually from local health centres. Occasionally they come into school to work with children and young people, parents, teachers and SEN support assistants. Specialist Teachers
Specialist teachers provide pupils with advise and support with problems they may have such as behaviour support, special needs support and support with English language. Educational Welfare Officer
They work for the local authority and visit schools, and work with the head teacher in monitoring the pupils attendance. They offer support with issues regarding absenteeism. Thay can also work with the parents of the children or young people by offering support to those who are excluded to return to school. School Improvement Partner
The school improvement partner advices and supports the head teacher 3-5 days a year. They generally have experience of school leadership and or have worked in a senior capacity as an advisory in the L.A. They work with the L.E.A. They support the head teacher in ways of development of the school through evaluation, pupil progress and attainment. They don’t just focus on the academic factors of the school, but extend provision of the school with working with the parents.
3.Understand how schools uphold their aims and values.
3.1 Define the meaning of: Aims and Values.
Aims are intentions to achieve a particular goal. It is likely that the schools aims or vision will be in the school prospectus and in other school literature. They will usually be set by the head teacher in collaboration with the parents, staff and the community. Values are deeply held beliefs about what is good, right and appropriate. They are firmly established and remain the same over time. 3.2 Describe with examples how schools may demonstrate and uphold their aims. 3.3. Describe with examples how schools may demonstrate and uphold their values. The aims of a school often include:
providing a caring atmosphere in which children and young people can develop their skills and abilities in all curriculum areas and fulfil their potential. Ensuring that both the staff and children can participate in every bit of their school life, whatever their needs or abilities may be. To have such an environment where children and staff can achieve the best in confidence. Build the confidence of children to ask any questions they may have or discuss any issues. To encourage children to take pride in their work
To encourage children to respect others and their views.
My setting is a special needs school and their belief is all the children are different but they are all to be treated equally but are all important. As this is their belief they have a slogan saying all different, all equal, all important. This shows the community that they believe strongly in this and treat each child equally and fairly. The values of a school are based on the moral code which will inform its development. Core values are at the heart of every community. They include respect for others and an anti bullying environment where children should feel happy and safe to learn. Although there may be some differences in the way in which people view them they will usually include respect for self and others and are related closely to personal, social health and economic education (PSHE) and citizenship education. They may also be tied in with the school rules. For Example if the school is a church school it will follow the beliefs and values of the church. The school should also show a good environment to any new people coming into it from the outside community. It should show that the staff and pupils alike are respectful towards each other or smiling and friendly towards each other. Pupils should listen and respect the teachers whilst in a learning environment. In the setting i am working in they value their school as a “happy and successful school in which to learn and work in.” They also show they are friendly environment school by mentioning in their student handbook “...all staff and pupils alike will be more than happy to help you with anything you need so don’t be afraid to ask.” 5.Know about the range and purpose of school policies and procedures 5.1 Describe why schools have policies and procedures.
It is important for every school to have policies and procedures so that they can keep a structured and consistent learning environment. They give guidance on procedures and how to implement the policies in the school as they are legal requirements within the school. It is important for every staff member in the school to have a copy of the policies and procedures and for the school to have it in an accessible place. 5.2 Identify the policies and procedures schools may have relating to Staff, Pupil welfare and Teaching and Learning. The above policies can include things such as:
Performance management policy
Health & Safety policy
Drugs awareness policy
Behaviour management policy
Personal, social, health and economic education policy
Anti – bullying policy
Teaching and Learning
Curriculum policies (a policy for each subject, such as history, maths, art) Early Years policy
Teaching and learning policy
Reference Kamen T (2010) Teaching Assistants Handbook Level 2, Hodder Education Company 6. Know about the wider context in which schools operate.
6.1 Identify the roles and responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice. National Government
The role of the DFE (Department for Education) is to be responsible for education and children’s services. This means that as well as being responsible for drawing up education policy – for example, in setting the National Curriculum and Early Years Foundation Stage from which schools and nurseries operate – It is also looking into new ways of developing the quality of services available to children under the five outcomes of Every Child Matters. It has also set up and administers the schools league tables. Other aspects of its role include:
Funding research into education-based projects and those who are concerned with children and young people Developing workforce reform
Promoting integrated working for all those who work with children and young people Developing the role of the third sector (those who are non – governmental – voluntary and community organisations, charities and others who work with children) Local Government
Local Government departments for education will provide services to schools in the area in the form of advise and support. The local education authority is responsible for providing accessible local services for: Staff training and development
Special educational needs
The curriculum, including early years
Promoting community cohesion
School management issues
The development of school policies
Local Authorities will need to provide documentation which outlines their own vision and plans for the development of government based initiatives. This will be through, for example, their local Children and Young People’s Partnership (CYPP) plan, which will be set out the way in which children’s services are integrated and describe how and when improvements will be achieved in the local area. In a similar way to the school policies, local authorities will also have policies which relate to wider issues, such as their own guidelines for schools for the use of restraint or guidance on the use of medicines. Most local education authorities will employ specialist advisors to deal with different curriculum areas such as maths or ICT, or to advice on areas special educational needs or the Foundation Stage. They will also have specifically trained teachers who will provide support for pupils who, for example, have behaviour needs or require to be assessed for a specific learning need such as dyslexia. They will sometimes provide these services free to schools, but in some cases schools may be expected to pay for them, in particular if specialist teachers need to come into school to advice teachers or work with specific children. 6.2 Describe the role of schools in national policies relating to children, young people and families. Schools are expected to know about and show they are working from national policies which relates to children, young people and families. An example of this is the Every Child Matters framework, which has had a wide ranging impact on provision for children and young people nationally. As part of this and community cohesion, schools have been developing their central role in local communities through projects such as the extended schools programme, and Ofsted will also inspect against the criterion. Schools will need to develop their own policies in the line with national requirements, such as child protection and safeguarding children, following guidelines from local education authorities. 6.3 Describe the roles of other organisations working with children and young people and how these may impact on the work of schools. Since there is a wide range of organisations which work with children and young people, it makes sense that they should liaise with one another and share their knowledge and experience. As well as developing links with one another for pupil support and community cohesion, it is likely that meetings will also be held between different services. Although they will work with and alongside schools, they may work in a different way,and all parties will need to be aware of this. However, the impact of a closer working relationship between organisations can only be beneficial to all concerned and is in the best interest of the children. Organisation
Social Services – Social services will link with schools in cases where it is necessary for them to shareinformation or prepare for court hearings. They may also liaise with your schools family worker or have meetings with teachers. Childrens Services – These are linked to the five outcomes of Every Child Matters, but may be from a range of providers including education, health, social services, early years and chilcare. Youth Services – These will have more impact on secondary schools but will be concerned with training and provision post – 14, the Youth Matters programme and Targeted Youth Support. National Health Services – Many professional who come into and work with schools may be employed by the National Health Services and Primary Care Trust, including speech therapists, physiotherapist and occupational therapist. Reference: Louise Burnham, Brenda Baker (2010) Supporting Teaching & Learning in schools Primary.