Paper code: 2.25/5.85/3.33
Introduction; meaning and nature of research; significance of research in business decision making, identification and formulation of research problem, setting objectives and formulation of hypotheses.
Qu. 1. Research is a careful investigation or inquiry through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. Discuss in the light of nature and significance of research.
Ans Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. The Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English defines the research as “careful investigation or inquiry through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. Redman and Mory defines research as “Systemized efforts to gain new knowledge”. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to unknown. According to Clifford Woody research compromises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. In general ‘research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciation the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and researching certain conclusions ether in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalization for some theoretically formulation. Objectives: The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and has not been discovered yet. The research objectives are: • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insight into it studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies. • To portray accurately the characteristics of particular individual, situation or group. These are called descriptive research studies. • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. This study is known as diagnostic research study. • To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Such study is known as testing research studies. Motivation in Research: The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: • Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. • Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e. concern over practical problems initiates research. • Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. • Desire to be of service of society.
• Desire to get respectability.
Types of Research: The basic types of research as follows:
(a) Descriptive Vs Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. Its major purpose is description of state of affaires, as it exists at present. Analytical researchers have to use facts or information already available and analyse these to make a critical evolution of material. (b) Applied Vs Fundamental: applied aims at finding solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial or business organisation. Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the marketing research are the examples of applied research. Fundamental is mainly concerned with generalization and with the formulation of theory. Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research. (c) Quantitative Vs Qualitative; Quantitative is based on measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative is based on the qualititative phenomena i.e. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. (d) Conceptual Vs Empirical: Conceptual research is related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing one. Empirical relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regards for system and theory. It is data based on research coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiments. (e) Other types of research: All types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factors. There are many other types of research based on their occurrence such as one-time research, field-setting research, clinical or diagnostic, historical and conclusion-oriented research etc. Significance of Research: All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry and inquiry leads to invention. Some of the significance in various fields are as follows: (a) Scientific and Inductive: Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habit of thinking and organisation. (b) Aid to Economics Policy: The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole has greatly increased in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research as an aid to economic policy has gained added importance. (c) Basis for Policies: Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, govt;s budget rest in part on an analysis of the need and desire of people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. The cost of need has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed. (d) Operational and Planning: Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operation research refers to application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimization or profit maximization or optimization problems. Business budgeting, which ultimately results in a projected profit and loss account, is based mainly on sales estimates which in turn depend on business research. Thus research replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. (e) Social Relationship: Research is equally important for social scientists in solving social relationship and in seeking answers to social problems. Research in social science is concerned both with knowledge for its own sake and with knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. (f) To those student who are to write a master or Ph.D. thesis, research may mean careerism or a way to attain high position in the social structure. (g) To professional in research methodology, I may mean a source of livelihood. (h) To philosophers and thinkers, it may mean the outlet for new ideas and insight. (j) To literary man and women, it may mean the development of new styles and creative work. (k) To analysts and intellectuals, it may mean the generalisation of new theories.
Qu. 2. Define research problem? Explain the techniques of defining research problem.
Ans. A research problem, in general, refers to some difficulties which a researcher experience in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. The components of research problems are as follows: • There must be an individual or a group which has some problem. • There must be some objectives to be attained. If one wants nothing, one can not have a problem. • There must be alternative means for obtaining the objectives one wishes to attain. It means there must be two means available to a researcher for if he has no choice of means, he can not have a problem. • There must remain some doubt in the mind of a researcher with regard to the selection of alternatives • There must be some environment to which the difficulty pertain. Thus the research problem is one that requires a researcher to find out the best solution for the given problem, i.e. to find out by which course of action the objective can be attained. Identifying the Problem: The research problem taken for study must be carefully identified. Following points may be observed while identifying a problem: • The subject of the problem should not be overdone, for it will be difficult task to through any new light on such a case. • Controversial subjects should not become the choice of an average researcher. • Too narrow and too vogue problem should be avoided.
• The subject of the problem should be familiar and feasible so that the related research material or research resources are within one’s reach. • The study of problem should fall within the budget he can afford. • A brief feasibility study must be undertaken to identify a problem. The subject or the problem identified or selected must involve the researcher and must have an uppermost place in his mind so that he may take all the pains needed for the study. Necessity of Defining a Problem: A problem clearly stated is a problem half solved. The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously for that will help to discriminate relevant data from the irrelevant ones. A proper definition of the research problem will enable the researcher to be on the track whereas an ill-defined problem may create hurdle. Question like: • What data are to be collected?
• What characteristics of data are relevant and need to be studied? • What relations are to be explored?
• What techniques are to be used for the purpose?
And similar other questions may crop up in researcher’s mind that can well plan his strategy and find answer to these questions. In fact formulation of problem is often more essential than solution. It is only on careful detailing the research problem that we can work out the research design and can smoothly carry on all the consequential steps involved while doing research. Techniques involved in Defining a problem: The research problem should be defined in a systematic manner, giving due weightage to all relating points. The technique for the purpose involves the following steps one after the other: (a) Statement of problem in a general way: The problem should be stated in a broad general way, keeping in view either some practical concern or some scientific or intellectual interest. The problem stated in broad way may contain various ambiguities which must be resolved by cool thinking and rethinking over the problem. At the same time feasibility of particular solution has to be considered and be kept in view while stating the problem. (b) Understanding the nature of problem: The next step in defining the problem is to understand its origin and nature clearly. The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss with those who first raised it in order to find out how the problem originally came about and with what objective in view. The researcher must also keep in mind the environment within which the problem is to be studied and understood. (c) Surveying the available literature: All available literatures concerning the problem at hand must necessarily be surveyed and examined before a definition of research problem is given. He must devote sufficient time in reviewing of research already undertaken on related problem. Studies on related problem are useful for indicating the types of difficulties that may be encountered in the present study as also the possible analytical shortcoming. (d) Defining the ideas through discussions: Discussion concerning a problem often produces useful information. Various new ideas can be developed through such an exercise. People with rich experience are in position to enlighten the researcher on different aspect of his proposed study and their advice and comments are usually invaluable to the researcher. (e) Rephrasing the research problem: This is last step of defining a problem. The researcher must sit to rephrase the research problem into a working proposition. Once the nature of problem has been clearly understood, the environment has been defined, discussions over the problem have taken place and the available literature has been surveyed and examined, rephrasing the problem into analytical or operational terms is not a difficult task. In addition of the above following points must also be observed while defining a research problem: • Technical words and terms or phrases, with special meanings used in the statement of the problem, should be clearly defined. • Basic assumptions relating to the research problem should be clearly stated. • A straight forward statement of the value of the investigation should be provided. • The suitability of time-period and the sources of data available must also be considered by the researcher in defining a problem. • The scope of the investigation or the limit within which the problem is to be studied must be mentioned explicitly in defining a research problem. •
Qu. 3. Define Hypothesis? Explain the types, needs and importance? What are the difficulties in formulation of hypothesis?
Ans. Hypothesis: It is a theory entertained in order to study the facts and examine the validity of the theory. According to George Caswell,”Hypothesis is a summary temporary and imaginary related to subject of study”. According to Good and Hatt, “Hypothesis is a proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity”. According to Poline V Young, “A provisional central idea which becomes the basis for fruitful investigation is known as a working hypothesis”. According to Bernard and Phillips, “Tentative statements about relationship among phenomena hypothesis have been called ‘question put to nature’ are fundamental in scientific research”. Thus hypothesis may not be a true one. It is a claim for truth. It is a bridge in the process of inquiry or search which brings with it some felt problem and ends without the resolution of the problem. Origin of Hypothesis: There are many kinds of sources of hypothesis: (a) Individual source: This includes researcher’s own thought, imaginations, sentiments, views and insight. (b) External Sources: This consists of sociology, humanities, images which are related to men and their several aspects. (c) General Culture: Culture gives various sources of formulation of hypothesis. It influences the social people thoughts and views. Indian culture is dominated by philosophy and idealism, hence it influences hypothesis and it will help to form hypothesis on the subjects. (d) Scientific Theories: Science also acts as source to various hypotheses. Science has generalisation which is a source of hypothesis. (e) Analogies: Analogies are at times useful to form hypothesis. These analogies can be seen in man and animal alike. (f) Personal Experience: The personal experience of a researcher becomes a source of hypothesis formation. It depends on his views on the problem. The life gained experience is utilised in the study of hypothesis. Need and Importance: The success and effectiveness of a hypothesis depends crucially upon the elimination of unnecessary and irrelevant facts and picking out of relevant facts. TH Huxley makes his significant observation, “those who refuse to go beyond fact rarely get as far as fact”. Almost every great step in history of the science has been made possible by the anticipation of nature, that is, by the invention of hypothesis which, though verifiable, often had very little to start with”. According to Charles Darwin, “No observation is possible if we do not have some hypothesis in mind. He says how odd it is that any one should not see that all observation must be for or against some view, if it is to be of any service”. Importance of hypothesis is as follows: • With the help of hypothesis, it becomes easy to decide as to what type of data is to be collected and what is to be ignored? • Hypothesis makes it clear as to what is to be accepted, proved or disproved and that what is the main focus of study. • It helps the investigator to knowing the direction in which he is to move. Without hypothesis it will be just duping in the dark and not moving in the right direction. • A clear idea about hypothesis means saving of time, money and energy which otherwise will be wasted, thereby botheration of trial and error will be saved. • Properly formulate hypothesis is always essential for drawing proper and reasonable conclusions. • It helps in concerning only on relevant factors and dropping irrelevant ones. Difficulties: Following difficulties are aced while formulating hypothesis: • Ignorance about systems and methods of hypothesis.: If the researcher is not conversant of systems and methods of formulating a hypothesis, then he will be facing difficulties in formulating the hypothesis. • Lack of Knowledge: The researcher must have the clear thorough knowledge of the hypothesis. • Lack of Responsibility: Lack of responsibility and scientific in the basis of hypothesis as the nature of research subject of social science have elasticity. The researcher must be aware of these facts. • Lake of Theoretical knowledge: Not using and having theoretical knowledge is another difficulty in formulating hypothesis. Limitation: Following are the limitations of hypothesis:
• Researcher collects facts accepting hypothesis as final guide, this is against scientific nature. • In commencing stages researcher collects such facts which are quite useless and deleterious in the end. • Researcher forwards the facts after breaking and not changing the hypothesis on the basis of real facts which causes results neither correct nor trustful. • His own view will favour his interest which will penetrate his studies so that neutrally and objectivity is not present. • In the end, the challenges given by wasteway to researcher must be remembered those hypotheses are those sleep giving acts which helps to give sleep o unconscious minds. Types: The important types of hypothesis are as under:
(a) Explanatory or Descriptive Hypothesis: A hypothesis may be about the cause of a phenomenon or about the law of which it is an instance. A hypothesis about cause is explanatory and about law is descriptive. (b) Tentative Hypothesis: When a incident can not be fully understood because of technical difficulties, we make tentative hypothesis about it and see how far this is successful in explaining. Some time simultaneously we test two or more hypothesis. The famous hypothesis about propagation of light, namely wave theory and corpuscular theory of light both explain the phenomenon of light but none of them is final. They are tentative. (c) Representative Fiction: according to Bain, “ Some hypothesis consist of assumptions as to the minute structure and operation of bodies. From the nature of the case, these assumptions can never be proved by direct means. There only merit is their suitability to express the phenomenon. These are ‘Representive Fictions’. Einstein’s formula E= Mc2 is an instance of representative fiction. The hypothesis is based upon imaginative reasoning and it primarily involves thinking without the help of concrete instance. That is why hypothetical reasoning is abstract. A hypothesis which proves to be correct becomes law or theory. The law of gravitor was a hypothesis in Newton’s mind but when it proved to be true, it became a law.
Research design and data collection; research designs – exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic and experimental data collection; universe, survey population, sampling and sampling designs. data collection tools- schedule, questionnaire, interview and observation, use of SPSS.
RESEARCH DESIGN: The formidable problem that follows the task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the design of the research project, popularly known as ‘research design’. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. According to Pauline V Young, “The logical and systematic planning and directing a piece of research is called research design”. First, it is the plan that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research questions. Second, it is strategy or blueprint specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analysing the data. Finally, since most business research studies have time and economic constraint, both time and cost budget are typically included. Need for Research Design: It is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximum information with minimal expenditure of efforts, time and money. Research design stands for advance planning of the methods to be adapted for collecting the relevant data and technique to be used in their analysis keeping in view the objective of the research and the availability of staff, time and money. A research design usually involves he consideration of the following factors: • The mean for obtaining information.
• The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff, if nay. • The objective of the problem to be studied.
• The nature of the problem to be studied.
• The availability of time and money for the research work. Concepts Relating to Research Design; There are various concepts relating to research design: (a) Dependent and Independent Variables: A concept that can take on different quantitative values is called variables. If one variable depends upon other variable, it is termed as dependent variable and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent is termed as independent variable. (b) Extraneous Variable: Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study and which may affect the dependent variables are termed as extraneous variables. (c) Control: One important characteristics of a good research is to minimise the influence or effect of extraneous variables. The technical term ‘control’ is used when we design the study minimizing the effect of extraneous variables. (d) Confounded Relationship: Where the dependent variable is not free from the influence of extraneous variables the relationship between the dependent and independent variables, it said to be confounded by an extraneous variables. (e) Research Hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is to be verified by scientific methods, it is termed as a research hypothesis. It must contain at least one independent and one dependent variable. (f) Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis Testing Research: When the purpose of a research is to test a research hypothesis, it is termed as ‘hypothesis-testing research’. It may be of experimental design or of non-experimental design. (g) Experimental and Control Groups: In an experimental hypothesis-testing research, when a group is exposed to usual condition, it is termed as ‘control group’ but when exposed to some novel or special condition, it is termed as ‘experimental group’. (h) Treatments: Treatments are the different conditions under which experimental and control group are put. If we want to determine through an experiment the comparative impact of three varieties of fertilizers on yield of rice, in that case the three varieties of fertilizers will be treated as three treatments. (j) Experiments: An experiment is the process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to some research problem. If we want of determine the impact of a fertilizer on the yield of a crop, it is called a case of absolute experiment, but if we want to determine the impact of one fertilizer as compared to the impact of some other fertilizer, then it will be termed as ‘comparative experiment’. (k) Experimental Unit: The pre-determined plots or blocks, where different treatment is applied, are known as experimental units. Types Of Research Design: Research design can be classified into following: (a) Design of Exploratory Studies: The purpose of exploratory studies is to achieve new insight into phenomenon. The major emphasis in those studies is discovery of new insight or ideas. Exploratory studies are more appropriate in the case of problem about which little knowledge is available. An exploratory research will be effective and turn out to be fruitful if the following methods are adapted before the initiation: (i) Survey of Literature: A review of the literature in the patent field and in the fields of related social science. (ii) Experience Survey: The survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. (iii) Analysis of Insight-stimulating cases: The analysis of insight-stimulating is suitable in the area where there is little experience to serve as a guide. (b) Descriptive Research: Descriptive studies aim at portraying accurately the characteristics of a particular group or situation. One may take a descriptive study about the work in factory, their age distribution, their community-wise distribution, their educational level, the state of their physical health and so forth. Descriptive study may be concerned with the attitudes towards anything e.g. attitudes towards presidential form of Government, Right to strike, capital punishment etc. Procedure: A descriptive study involves the following steps: (a) Formulating the objectives of study: It is the first step to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the data collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully, the study may not provide the desired information. (b) Designing the methods of data collection: The technique for collecting the information must be devised. Several methods such as observation, questionnaire, interviewing, examination of the records etc, with their merits and demerits, are available for the purpose and the researcher may use one or more of these methods. (c) Defining the population and selecting a sample: In most of the descriptive studies the researcher takes out samples and then wishes to make statements about the population on the basis of the sample analysis. Researcher has to select a sample design to be used in his study. Usually one or more forms of probability sampling or random sampling are used. (d) Collection of Data: To obtain data free from errors, checks may be set up to ensure that the data collecting staff perform heir duty honestly and without prejudice. (e) Processing and Analysising of data: The data collected must be processed and analyzed. This includes steps like coding the interview replies, observation, etc, tabulating the data and performing several statistical computations. (f) Reporting the Findings: This is the task of communicating the findings to others and researchers must do it in an efficient manner. The layout of the reports needs to be well planned so that all things relating to research studies may be well presented in simple and effective style. (c) Design of Diagnostic Studies: A diagnostic study is the solution of a specific problem by the researcher of the relevant variables that are associated with it in varying degrees. A diagnostic study, for example, may aim at discovering or analysing the specific problem of the farmers, college teachers, career women or pensioners. While discovering or analyzing the specific problems or needs of these categories of people, the diagnostic study aims to identify the relevant variables associated with the problem or needs. It involves the same steps as the descriptive studies involve. (d) Design of Experimental Studies: The purpose of experimental studies is to test a hypothesis of casual relationship between variables. For an experimental study, two groups are required, and compared in terms of the assured effect of experimental variables. The validity of an experiment depends on the equivalence between the control group and the experimental group chosen . There are two ways of assuring this equivalence: (i) Randomisation (ii) Matching
POPULATION: An aggregate of objects or individuals under study is called population. The number of units constituting the population is called the size of population. For example, in the study of agriculture yields, all the cultivated farms together will be population. In the study of socio-economic conditions of a particular village, all families or houses in the village will be population. Type: According to the size of population there are two types of population: (a) Finite Population: When number of units in the population is finite, it is called finite population. For example, the population of student enrolled in a year in a college is a finite population as the number of student is finite number. (b) Infinite Population: When the number of units in a population is infinite, it is called infinite population. For example, the number of units produced of a product in continuous process of production is an infinite population. Importance: In any statistical investigation, complete enumeration of the population is rather impracticable. If the population is infinite, complete enumeration is not possible. Also if the units are destroyed in the course of inspection (inspection of crackers, explosives materials etc.), 100% inspection, though possible, is not at all desirable. But even if population is finite or the inspection is not destructive, 100% inspection is not taken recourse to because of multiplicity of causes, viz, administrative and financial implications; time factor etc and we take the help of sampling. Population sampling is quite useful in our day-to-day life. For example, in a shop we assess the quality of sugar, wheat or any other commodity by taking a handful of it from the bag and than decide to purchase it or not. A housewife normally tests the cocked products to find if they are cooked and contains the proper quantity of salt etc. SAMPLING: According to Goode and Hatt, “A sample as the name applies, is a smaller representative of a large whole”. According to Pauline V Young, “A statistical sample is a miniature of cross selection of the entire group or aggregate from which the sample is taken”. According to Bogrdus, “Sampling is the selection of certain percentage of a group of items according to a predetermined plan”. Feature of Sampling Techniques: The sampling techniques have following good features and these bring into relief its value and significance: (a) Scientific Base: It is a scientific because the conclusion derived from the study of certain units can be verified from other units. By taking random sample, we can determine the amount of deviation from the norm. (b) Economy: The sampling technique is much less expensive, much less time consuming than the census technique. (c) Reliability: If the choice of sample unit is made with due care and the matter under survey is not heterogeneous, the conclusion of the sample survey can have almost the same reliability as those of census survey. (d) Detailed study: Since the number of sample units is fairly small, these can be studied intensively and elaborately. They can be examined from multiple of views. (e) Greater Suitability in most Situations: Most of the surveys are made by the techniques of sample survey, because whenever the matter is of homogeneous nature, the examination of few units suffices. This case in majority of situations. Methods of Sampling: The methods of selecting a sample are as follows: (a) Purposive sampling: In this method the investigator has complete freedom to choose his sample according to his wishes and desire. To choose or leave an item for the purpose of study depends entirely upon the wishes of investigator and he will chose items or units which in his judgment are representative of the whole data. This is a very simple technique of choosing the samples and is useful in cases where the whole data is homogeneous and the investigator has full knowledge of the various aspects of the problem. Advantage:
• More representation is possible in this method.
• As sample is small in size, the method is less expensive and less time consuming. • The utility of this method increases when few units of universe have special importance. • When units are less in number, sample is profitable
• Units are selected by researcher at his will. Hence sample is biased. • The error of the sample can not be detected.
• Researcher is unable to understand the whole group.
• Those hypothesis on which inference of error of sample is attributed, are less used. (b) Random Sampling: Off all the methods of selecting sample, random sampling technique is made maximum use of and it is considered as the best method of sample selection. Random sampling is made in following ways: (i) Lottery Method: In this the number of data are written on sheet of paper and they are thrown into a box. Now a casual observer selects the number of item required in the sample. For this method it is necessary that sheet of paper should be of equal dimensions. (ii) By Rotating the Drum: In this method, piece of wood, tin or cardboard of equal length and breadth, with number 0,1 or 2 printed on them, are used. The pieces are rotated in a drum and then requisite numbers are drawn by an impartial person. (iii) Selecting from Sequential List: In this procedure units are broken up in numerical, alphabetical or geography sequence. Now we may decide to choose 1, 5, 10 and so on , if the division is alphabetical order we decide to choose every item starting from a, b, c and so on. (iv) Tippet’s Number: On the basis of population statistics, Tippet has constructed a random list of four digits each of 10, 400 institutions. These numbers are the result of combining 41,600 population statistics reports. Advantages;
• Due to impartiality, there is possibility of selecting any unit as sample. • Units have the characteristic of universe, hence units are more representative. • Simplicity of method makes no possibility of error.
• Error can be known easily
• It saves money, time and labour.
• The selector has no control over the selection of units. The researcher can not contact the far situated units. • He can not prepare the whole field when the universe is vast. • If units have no homogeneity, the method is not appropriate. • There is no question of alternatives. The selected units can not be replaced or changed. (c) Stratified Sampling: This method of selecting samples is a mixture of both purposive and random sampling techniques. In this all the data in a domain is spilt into various classes on the basis of their characteristics and immediately thereafter certain items are selected from these classes by the random sampling technique. This technique is suitable in those cases in which the data has sub data and having special characteristics. For example if we wish to collect information regarding income expenditure of the male population strata on the basis of shopkeeper, workers, etc. From these we shall select randomly some units for study of income-expenditure statistics. Process of Stratifying: The stratification of domain or data should be with great care, because the success of the technique depends upon successful stratification. Following points should be born in mind: • We should process extensive information of all items including in a domain and should know which item make a coherent whole on the basis of similar traits and which others re different from them and why? • The size of each stratum should be large to enable use of random sampling technique. • In stratifying it must be kept in mind that various strata should have similar relation to the domain and should be themselves homogeneous. • The various strata should differ from each other should be the same as the proportion of stratum from the domain. Suppose a domain has four strata, accordingly the proportion of each stratum of domain is ¼. Now if the number of total items of the sample is 64, we shall select 16 items from each stratum and thus the proportion of selected items from each stratum will be ¼. Advantage:
Neither group nor class of importance is totally neglected as units of each are represented in the sample. If different classes are divided properly, selection of few units represents the whole group. On the classification of regional basis, units are not in contact easily. This leads to economy of time and money. There is a facility in substitution of units. If someone is not contacted easily, the other person of the same class can be substituted for him. Such inclusion result will not show any contradicting. Disadvantages:
• The sample does not become representative if selected sample has more or less units of a class. • If the sizes of different group are different, no equal proportional quality can be viewed. • Non-proportional selection leads to more emphasis in the end. During such time researcher ca be biased, hence samples will not representate. • If group is not expressed properly, the difficulty is seen about the unit to be kept under which group or class. (d) Quota Sampling: This method of study is not much used. In this method entire data is spilt into as many as there are investigators and each investigator is asked to select certain items from his block and study. The success of this method depends upon the integrity and professional competence of investigators. If some investigators are competent and others are not so competent, serious discrepancies will appear in the study. (e) Multi-Stage sampling: This is not a favoured procedure of sampling. In this items are selected in different stages at random. For example, if we wish to know per acre yield of various crops in U.P., we shall begin by studying a single crop in one study. Here we shall begin by making at random selection of 5 districts in the first instance, and then of these 5 districts, 10 villages per districts will be chosen in the same manner. Now in the final stage, again by random selection 5 fields out of every village. Thus we shall examine per acre yield in 250 farms all over U.P. this number can increased or decreased depending upon the opinion of experts. (f) Extensive sampling: This method is virtually same as census except that irrelevant or irascible items are left out. Every other item is examined. For instance, if we are to study the educational levels of Indians, we may leave foreigners living in India from our study. This method has all the merits and demerits of census survey and is very rarely used. (g) Convenience Sampling: This is hit or miss procedure of study. The investigator selects certain item from the domain as per his convenience. No planned efforts are made to collect information. This is method by which a tourist studies generally the country of his visit. He comes across certain people and things, has transaction with them and then tries to generalize about the entire populace in his travelogue. This is essentially unscientific procedure and has no value as a research technique. Summary: The selection of sampling procedure from the above mentioned techniques depends upon the nature, scope, number of units etc in a domain. Also another factor determining our choice is amount of accuracy and refinement desired.
Definition: A definite plane for obtaining a sample from a given population is called ‘sample design’. It is a technique of selecting items for the sample. It lay down the number of items to be included in the sample. It should be reliable and appropriate for the research study of the researcher. It is determined before data are collected. While developing a sample design, the following points must be taken into consideration: (a) Type of Universe: In developing any sample design, the first step is to define the universe i.e. the set of objects to be studied. The universe may be finite or infinite. (b) Sample Frame: It contains the names of all items of a universe. It should be a representative of the population and should be appropriate, reliable, correct and comprehensive. (c) Sample Unit: It is to be decided before selecting the sample. Sampling units may be geographical, constructional, social and individual. (d) Sample Size: This refers to the number of items to be selected from a universe to form a sample. Sample size should not be very large or too small. It should fulfill the requirements of reliability, efficiency, flexibility and representativeness. While deciding the size of sample, the researcher must consider the population size, the parameter of interest in research study and the budgetary constraints. (e) Parameters of Interest: While determining a sample design, the specific population parameters, which are of interest, must be taken into account by the researcher. For instance the researcher may be interested in estimating the portion of persons with some characteristic in the population or he may be interested in knowing some average or the other measure concerning the population. A sample design is generally affected by all this. (f) Budgetary Constraints: The size as well as the type of sample depends upon the cost consideration. (g) Sampling Procedure: Finally the researcher must decide about techniques to be used in selecting the items for the sample i. e. he must decide the type of sample. This technique stands for the sample design itself. He should select the sample design in such a way that for a given sample size and for a given cost, the sample design has a smaller sampling error.
• Sample design should be such, so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way. • It should result in a truly representative sample.
• It should be viable in the context of funds available for the research study. • It should be such that the results of sample study can be applied, in general, for the universe with a reasonable level of confidence. • It should result in small sampling error.
Types Of Sampling: There are two types of sample designs:
(a) Non-probability Sampling: This procedure does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has been included in the sample. Deliberate sampling, purposive sampling and judgment sampling are non-probability sampling methods. In this type of sampling, item for sample are selected deliberately by the researcher and his choice concerning the items remains supreme. If economic condition of people living in a state is to be studied, a few towns and villages are purposively selected for intensive study on the principle that they can be representative of the entire state. In this type of sampling, there is always the danger of entering personal element into the selection of the sample. The investigator may select a sample which will yield results favourable to his point of view. If such things happen, then the entire inquiry my get spoiled. If the investigator is impartial, and if work without bias, then the results of selected sample may be tolerably reliable. The sampling error can not be estimated in this method. This method is generally adapted. In small inquiries and research this method may be adopted. (b) Probability Sampling: It is also known as random sampling or chance sampling. In this, every item has equal chance of being included in the sample. It is a lottery method in which individual units are picked up from the whole group by some mechanical process and not deliberately. The results obtained can be assured in terms of probability, i. e. the error of estimation or the significance of results obtained can be measured. Random sampling ensures the law of statistical regulatory which states that if on an average the sample chosen is a random one, the sample will have the same composition and characteristics as the universe. That is why this sampling is considered as the best techniques of selecting a representative sample. DATA COLLECTION
Necessity: Utmost care should be taken while collecting data because data constitute the foundation on which the superstructure of statistical analysis is built. The results obtained from the analysis are properly interpreted and policy decisions are taken. Hence, if the data are inaccurate and inadequate, the whole analysis may be faulty and decisions taken misleading. Primary Data: Primary data are obtained by specifically designed to fulfill the data needs of the problem at hand. The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. For example, data obtained in a population census by the office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner are primary data. Primary source: A primary source is one that itself collects the data. A primary source has more detailed information on the procedure followed in collecting and compiling the data. Advantage: It is advantageous to use the primary source for collecting the data for the following reasons: Primary source shows data in greater detail.
• It frequently includes definitions of terms and units used. • It often includes a copy of schedule and description of procedure used in selecting the sample and in collecting the data. • The secondary source may contain mistakes due to errors in transcription made when the figures were copied from the primary source. Methods of Collection: Following are the important methods of collecting primary data: (a) Observation Method: It is the most commonly used method especially in studies relating to behavioural science. In this method information are sought by way of investigator’s own direct observation without asking from the respondent. For instant, in study relating to consumer behaviuor, the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by the respondent may himself look at the watch. Type: Three are many types of observations:
(i) Structured and Unstructured Observation :The observation which is characterized by a careful definition of the units to be observed, the style of recording the observed information, standardized conditioned of observation and selection of pertinent data of observation is called structured observation. These observations are considered appropriate in descriptive studies. When the observation is to take place these characteristics to be thought of in advance, it is termed as unstructured observation. Theses observations are most likely in exploratory studies. (ii) Participant and Non-participant Observations: These observations are used in social science. If the observer observes by making himself, more or less, a member of the group he is observing so that he can experience what the members of the group experience, the observation is called participant. But when that observer observes as detached emissary without any attempt on his part to experience through participation what others feel, the observation is termed as non-participant. (iii) Controlled and Uncontrolled Observations: If the observation takes place in natural settings it may be termed as uncontrolled observation. The major aim of this type of observation is to get a spontaneous picture of life and person. But when observation takes place according to definite pre-arranged plans, involving experimental procedures, the same than termed as controlled observation. Such observations has tendency to supply formalized data upon which generalization can be built with some degree of accuracy. Advantage of Observation Method: Following are the advantages of observation method: Subjected bias is eliminated, if observation is done correctly. • The information obtained under this method relates to what is currently happening, it is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes. • This method is independent of respondent’s willingness to respond and as such is relatively less demanding of active cooperation on be part of respondents as happen to be the case in the interview or the questionnaire method. This method is particularly suitable in studies which deal with subject, i. e. respondents who are not capable of giving verbal report of their feelings for one reason or the other. Disadvantage: However observation method has various disadvantages: • It is an expensive method.
• Information provided by this method is very limited. • Sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task. At times, the fact that some people are rarely accessible to direct observation creates obstacles for this method to collect data effectively. (b) Interview Method: There are two types of interview method: (i) Personal Interview: In this method of data collection, there is a face-to-face contact with persons from whom the information is to be obtained. The interviewer asks them questions pertaining to the survey and collects the desired information. The information thus obtained is original in character. Techniques: There are various techniques of personal interviews: Structured and unstructured: this interview involves the use of a set of predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording. The interviewer follows a rigid procedure laid down, asking questions in a form and prescribed order. It is used in descriptive studies. Unstructured interviews are characterized by a flexibility of approach of questioning. It don’t follow a system of predetermined questions and standardized techniques of recording. The interviewer has greater freedom. This method is used in exploratory or formulative studies. Focused Interview: It is to focus attention on the given experience of the respondents and its effects. The interviewer has freedom to decide the manner and sequence of the questions. These are generally used in the development of hypothesis and constitute a major type of unstructured interviews. Clinical Interviews: It is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivation or with the course of individual’s life experience. Non-directive interviews: In this the interviewer’s function is simply to encourage the respondent to talk about the given topic with a bare minimum of direct questioning. Advantage: The advantages of personal interview method are as follows: • More information and too in greater depth can be obtained. • Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondents. • There is a greater flexibility under this method as the opportunity to restructure questions is always there, specially in the case of unstructured interviews. • Observation method can also be applied to recording verbal answers to various questions. • Personal information can as be obtained easily under this method. • Sample can be controlled more effectively as there arises no difficulty of missing return, non-response generally remains very low. • The interviewer can usually control which person will answer the question. • The interviewer may catch the informant off-guard and thus may secure the most spontaneous reaction. • The language of interview can be adapted to the ability or educational level of the person interviewed. • The interviewer can collect supplementary information about the respondent’s personal character and environment which is often of great value in interpreting results. Disadvantages: There are certain weaknesses of interview method: • It is very expensive method, especially when large and wide spread geographical sample is taken. • There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as that of the respondents. • Certain types of respondents such as important officials or executives may not be easily approached under this method and to that extant the data may prove inadequate. • This method is more time consuming, especially when the sample is large and recalls upon the respondents are necessary. • The presence of the interviewer on the spot may over-stimulate the respondent, sometimes even to the extant that he may give imaginary information just to make the interview interesting. • Under the interview method the organization required for selecting, training, and supervising the field staff is more complex with formidable problem. • Interview at times may also introduce systemic errors. • Effective interviews pre-suppose proper rapport with respondents that would facilitate free and frank response. Pre requisite and basic tenets of Interview: For successful implementation of interview method: • Interviewer should be carefully selected, trained and briefed. • They should be honest, hard-working, sincere, and impartial and must posses the technical competence and necessary practical experience. • Occasional field checks should be made to ensure that interviewer are neither cheating nor deviating from instructions given to them for performing their job efficiently. • Some provision should be made in advance so that appropriate action may be taken if some of the selected respondents refuse to cooperate or not available when an interviewer calls upon them. In fact, interviewing is an art governed by certain scientific principle. The interviewer’s approach must be friendly, courteous, conversational and unbiased. (b) Telephone Interview: This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone itself. It is not a very widely used method, but plays important part in industrial surveys, particularly in developed regions. Merits: The chief merits of such systems are:
• It is more flexible in comparison to mailing method. • It is faster than other methods.
• It is cheaper than personal interviewing method.
• Recall is easy, callback are simple and economical.
• There is a higher rate of response than what we have in mailing method. • Replies can be recorded without causing embarrassment to the respondents. • Interviewer can explain requirements more easily.
• No field staff is required.
• Representative and wider distribution of sample is possible. • At times access can be gained to respondents who otherwise can not be contacted. Demerits: It is not free from demerits:
• Little time is given to respondents for considered answers; interview period is not likely to exceed five minutes in most cases. • Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities. • Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost consideration. • It is not suitable for intensive surveys where comprehensive answers are required to various questions. • Possibility of bias of the interviewer is relatively more. • Questions have to be short and to the point, probes are difficult to handle. (c) Questionnaire Method: In this method a list of questions pertaining to the survey is prepared and sent to the various informants by post. The questionnaire contains questions and provides space for answers. A request is made to the informants through a covering letter to fill up he questionnaire and send it back within a specified time. This method is adapted by private individuals, research workers, private and public organisations and even by govt. Merits: This method is most extensively employed in various economic and business surveys. The main merits are as follows: • There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically. • It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondent’s own words. • Respondents have adequate time to give well out answers. • Respondents who are not easily approachable can also be reached conveniently. • Large sample can be made use of and thus the results can be more dependable and reliable. Demerits:
• Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires, bias due to no-response is often indeterminate. • It can be used only when respondents are educated and cooperating. • There is inbuilt inflexibility because of the difficulty of amending the approach once questionnaires have been sent. • The control over questionnaire may be lost once it is sent. • There is also the possibility of ambiguous replies or omission of replies altogether to certain questions, interpretation of omission is difficult. • It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative. • This method is likely to be the slowest of all.
Requirement of good Questionnaire: The following general principle/requirements are useful in framing questionnaire: (i) Covering Letter: The person conducting the survey must introduce himself and state objective of the survey. A short letter stating the purpose of survey should be enclosed along with the questionnaire. (ii) Number of questions: The number of questions to be included in the questionnaire would strictly depend upon the object and the scope of the investigation and number of the questions should be as small as possible. Because if the questionnaire is lengthy, the rate of response will be lower. (iii) Should be Arranged Logically: The question should be arranged logically so that a natural and spontaneous reply to each is induced. For example it is illogical to ask a person about his income before asking him whether he is employed or not. (iv) Short and Simple: The question should be short and simple to understand and technical terms should be avoided. (v) Personal Question: Personal question should be avoided such as income, income tax is paid etc. (vi) Necessary Instructions: The instructions about the unit of measurement or the time within which questionnaire should be sent back etc should be provided. (vi) Objective Answers: The descriptive questions should be avoided while framing the questionnaire. As far as the question should be of such nature that can be answered easily in ‘yes’ or ‘no’. (vii) Calculation: Question requiring calculation should be avoided. If calculus is included, informant may not answer the questions. (viii) Attractive: The quality of paper used and printing should be of high quality. Sufficient space should be given for answering. (d) Schedule Method: This method of data collection is very much like questionnaire method, with a little difference which lies in the fact that schedules are being filled in by the numerators who are specially appointed for this purpose. These numerators along with schedules go to respondents put to them the questions from the Performa in the order questions are listed and record the replies in the space provided. Numerators explains them the object of the investigation and also removes the difficulties felt by the respondents. The numerators should train to perform their job well and the nature and scope of the investigation should be explained to them thoroughly. The numerators should be intelligent and must posses the capacity of cross examination in order to find out the truth. This method of data collection is very useful in extensive enquiries and can lead to fairly reliable results. It is, however very expensive and is usually adopted in investigations conducted by governmental agencies or by some big organisations. Population census all over the world is conducted through this method. Difference between Questionnaire and Schedule: Both methods are important. The points of difference are: (i) Mode of Sending: The questionnaire generally sent through mail to informants to be answered as specified in a covering letter without further assistant from the sender. The schedule is generally filled out by the research worker or the numerator. (ii) Cost Effective: To collect data through questionnaire is relatively cheap and economical since we have to spend money only on preparing the questionnaire and in mailing to the respondents. Schedule is relatively more expensive since considerable amount of money has to be spent in appointing numerators. (iii) Rate of Response: Non-response is usually high in case of questionnaire as many people do not respond and return the question without answering. It is very low in case of schedule method.
(iv) Identity: In case of questionnaire it is not always clear who replies, but in schedule the identity of respondent is known. (v) Collection Time: The questionnaire method is likely to be very slow, but in case of schedules the information is collected well in time as these are filled by numerators. (vi) Contacts: Personal contact is generally not possible in case of questionnaire, but in case of schedules direct personal contacts are established with respondents. (vii) Literacy: Questionnaire method can be used only when respondents are literate and cooperative. But in schedules information can be gathered even when the respondents happen to be illiterate. (viii) Area: Wider and more representative distribution of sample is possible under questionnaire method, but in schedules there are usually remains the difficulty in sending numerators over a relatively wide area. (ix) Accuracy: Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is relatively more under the questionnaire method, but in schedules, information collected are complete and correct. (x) Results: The success of questionnaire method depends upon the quality of questionnaires itself but in schedules it depends upon the honesty and competence of numerators. (xi) Attraction: In order to attract he attention of respondents, the physical appearance of questionnaire must be quite attractive but this may not be so in case of schedules. (xii) Other Methods: Along with schedules, observation method can also be used but such things are not possible in questionnaire method while collecting data. (e) Other methods Of collecting Data: There are some other methods of data collection particularly used by big business houses I modern time: • Warranty cards
• Distributor or store audits
• Pantry audits
• Consumer panel
• Use of mechanical device
• Project techniques
• Depth interviews
• Contact analysis
Secondary Data: The data which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published or unpublished sources are called secondary data. For example, for the office of Registrar General, the census data are primary whereas for all others, who use such data, they are secondary. The secondary data constitutes the chief material on the basis of which statistical work is carried out in many investigations. Sources: Usually the secondary data are available in following: • Various publication of central, state and local Govt. • Various publications of foreign Govt or international bodies and their subsidiary organisation. • Technical and trade journals.
• Books, magazines and newspapers.
• Reports and publications of various associations connected with business and industries, banks, stock exchange etc. • Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economists etc in different fields. • Public records and statistics, historical documents. • Diaries, letters, unpublished biographies and autobiographies, public/private individuals etc. Advantage:
• If secondary data are available, they are much quicker to obtain than primary data. • It may be available on some subjects, where it would be impossible to collect primary data. For example census data can not be collected by individuals is research origination but can only be obtained from Govt publications. • It is highly convenient to use information which someone else has complied. There is no need for printing data collection forms, hiring numerators, editing and tabulating the results etc. Disadvantage:
• There is a problem in finding the data which are sufficiently accurate. • It is difficult to find data which exactly fit the need of the present project. Characteristics: A researcher must see that the secondary data posses following characteristic: (a) Reliability of Data: The reliability can be tested by finding out such things about said data: who collected the data? What were the sources of data? Were they collected by using proper methods? At what time were they collected? Was there any bias of complier? What level of accuracy was desired? (b) Suitability of Data: The researcher must carefully scrutinize the definition of various terms and units of collection used at the time of collecting the data from the primary sources because the data that are suitable for one enquiry may not necessary be found suitable in another inquiry. (c) Adequacy of Data: If the level of accuracy achieved in data is found inadequate for the purpose of the present inquiry, they will be considered as inadequate and should not be used by the researcher. The data will be considered inadequate, if they are related to an area which may be either narrower or wider than the area of present inquiry. Selection of Methods: Keeping in the view of following factors, the researcher should select the methods: (a) Nature, Scope and Object of inquiry: This constitutes the most important factor affecting the choice of a particular method. The method selected should be such that it suits the type of inquiry that is to be conducted by the researcher. This factor is also important in deciding whether the data already available are to be used or the data not yet available are to be collected. (b) Availability of Funds: It determines to a large extent the method to be used for the collection of data. When the funds at the disposal of researcher are very limited, he will have to select a comparatively cheaper method which may not be as efficient and effective as some other costly method. (c) Time Factor: Availability of time has also to be taken into account in deciding a particular method of data collection. Some methods take relatively more time, whereas with others the data can be collected in a comparatively shorter duration. (d) Precision required: Precision required is yet another important factor to be considered at the time of selecting method of collection of data.
Scaling techniques; need for scaling, problems of scaling, reliability and validity of scales, scale construction techniques- arbitrary approach, consensus scale approach (Thurston), item analysis approach (Likert) and cumulative scales (Gut man’s Scalogram)
SCALING: Scaling has been defined as a, “Procedure for the assignment of numbers or other symbols to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristic of numbers to the properties in question”. Scale is a continuum, consisting of the highest point and lowest point along with the several intermediate points between theses two extremes. These scale-points are so related to each other that when the first point happens to be the highest point, the second point indicates a higher degree in terms of a given characteristics as compared to the third pint indicates a higher degree as compared to the forth points and so on. Scaling Classification Basis: The scaling procedures may be broadly classified on one or more of the following: (a) Subject Orientation: In this a scale may be designed to measure characteristics of the respondent who completes it or to judge the stimulus objects which are presented to the respondent. (b) Response Form: Under this we may classify the scales as categorical and comparative. Categorical scales are also known as rating scales. These scales are used when respondent scores some objects without direct reference to the other objects. Under comparative scales, that are also known as ranking scales, the respondent is asked to compare two objects. (c) Degree of Subjectivity: With this basis the scale data may be based on whether we measure subjective personal preference or simply make non-preference judgment. (d) Scale Properties: Considering sale properties, one may classify as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Nominal scales merely classify without indicating order, distance or unique origin. Ordinal scales indicate magnitude relationship of ‘more than’ or ‘less than’ but indicates no distance or unique distance. Interval scales have both order and distance values, but no unique origin. Ratio scales posses all these features. (e) Number of Dimensions: In respect of this basis, scales can be classified as ‘unidimensional’ and ‘multi-dimensional’ scales. In uni-dimensional we measure only one attribute of the respondent or object, whereas multidimensional scaling recognize that an object might be described better by using the concept of an attribute space of ‘n’ dimension, rather than a single-dimension continuum. (f) Scales Construction Techniques: Following are the main techniques by which scales can be developed: (i) Arbitrary Approach: It is an approach where scale is developed on ad hoc basis. This is the most widely used approach. (ii) Consensus Approach: Here a panel of judges evaluates the items chosen for inclusion in the instruments in terms of whether they are relevant to the topic area and unambiguous in implication. (iii) Item analysis approach: Under this a number of individual items are developed into a test which is given to a group of respondents. After administering the test, the total scores are calculated for every one. Individual items are than analyzed to determine which item discriminate between persons or objects with high total scores and those with low scores. (iv) Cumulative Scales: These are chosen on the basis of their confirming to some ranking of items with ascending and descending discriminating power. (v) Factor scales: It may be constructed on the basis of intercorelations of items which indicate that a common factor accounts for the relationship between items. Scaling Techniques: Following are some scaling technique:
(a) Rating scales: It involves qualitative description of a limited number of aspects of a thing or traits of a person. When we use rating scales, we judge an object in absolute terms against some specified criteria. These ratings may be in such forms as ‘like-dislike’, ‘above-average. Average, below average’ or other classifications with more categories such as ‘like very much-like somewhat-neutral-dislike somewhat-dislike very much’, ‘excellent-good- average-below average-poor’, ‘always-often-occasionally-rarely-never’ and so on. In practice, three to seven point scales are used for simple reason that more points on scale provide an opportunity for greater sensitivity of measurement. Rating scale may be: (i) Graphic Rating Scale: It is quite simple and is commonly used in practice. In this the various points are usually put along the line to form a continuum and the rater indicates his rating by simply making a mark at the appropriate point on a line that runs from line, their function being to assist the rater in performing his job. Limitations: This type of scale has several limitations:
• The respondents may check at almost any position along the line which fact may increase the difficulty of analysis. • The meaning of terms like ‘very-much’ and ‘somewhat’ may depend upon respondent’s frame of reference so much that the statement might be challenged in terms of its equivalency. • Several other rating scale variants may also be used. (ii) Numerical Scale: It is also known as itemized rating scale. It present a series of statements from which a respondent selects one as best reflecting his evaluation. These statements are ordered progressively in terms of more or less of some property. Merits:
It provides more information and meaning to the rater, and thereby increases reliability. The result obtained from their use compare favourably with alternative methods. It requires less time, are interesting to use and have a wide range of applications. They may also be used with a large number of properties or variables. Limitations:
If the respondents are not very careful while rating, errors may occur such as error of leniency, error of central tendency and the error of hallo effects. (b) Ranking Scales: It is also called comparative scales. In this scale we make relative judgments against other similar objects. The respondents under this method directly compare two or more objects and make choice among them. There are two generally used approaches of ranking scales” (i) Method of Paired Comparison: In his the respondent can express his attitude by making a choice between two objects, say between new flavour of soft drink and an established brand of drink. But when there are more than two stimuli to judge, the number of judgments required in a paired comparison is given by this formula: N = n (n-1)/2 where N = numbers of judgments, n= number of stimuli or objects to be judged. (ii) Method of Rank Order: Under this method of comparative scaling, the respondents are asked to rank their choice. This method is easier and faster than the method of paired comparison. For example, with 10 items it takes 45 pair comparisons to complete the task, whereas the method of rank order simply requires ranking of 10 items only. Limitations: There are certain limitations of this method:
• Data obtained through this method are ordinal data and hence rank ordering is an ordinal scale with all its limitations. • There may be problem of respondents becoming careless in assigning ranks particularly when there are many. SCALE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES: Some of the important approaches along with the corresponding scales developed under each approach to measure attitude are as follows: Arbitrary Approach: Arbitrary scales are developed on ad hoc basis and are designed largely through the researcher’s own subjective selection of items. The researcher first collects few statements or items which he believes are unambiguous and appropriate to a given topic. Some of these are selected for inclusion in the measuring instrument and then people are asked to check in a list the statements with which they agree. Merits: The chief merits of such scales are that:
• They can be developed very easily, quickly and relatively less expensive. • They can be designed to be highly specific and adequate. • Theses are widely used practice.
Demerits: At the same time there are some limitations:
• We do not have objective evidence that such scales measure the concepts for which they have been developed. • We have simply to rely on researcher’s insight and competence. Consensus scales or Thurstone-type scales: This is developed by LL Thrustone. In this approach the selection of items is made by a panel of judges who evaluate the items in terms of whether they are relevant to the topic area and unambiguous in implication. Procedure: The detail procedure is as under:
• The researcher gathers a large number of statements, usually twenty or more, that express various points of view towards group, institution, idea or practice. • These statements are then submitted to a penal of judges, each of whom arranges them in eleven groups ranging from one extreme to another in position. Each of judges is requested to place generally in the first pile to place those statements which he thinks are most unfavourable to the issue, in the second pile to place those statements which he thinks are next most unfavourable and he goes on doing so in this manner till in the eleventh pile he puts the statements which he considerers to be the most favourable. • The sorting of each judge yields a composite for each of the items. In case of marked disagreements between the judges in assigning to an item, that is discarded. • For items that are retained, each is given its median scales value between one and eleven as established by panel. • A final selection of statements is then made. For this purpose a sample of statements, whose median scores are spread evenly from one extreme to the other is taken. The statement so selected, constitutes the final scale to be administered to respondents. The position of each statement on the scale is the same as determined by judges. After developing the scale, the respondents are asked during the administration of the scales to check the statements with which they agree. The median value of the statements that they check is worked out and this establishes their scores or qualifies their opinions. If the values are valid and id the opinionnaire deals with only one attitude dimension, the typical respondents will choose one or several contiguous items to reflect his views. However at times divergence may occur when a statement appears to tap a different attitude dimension. Merit:
• This method has been widely used for developing differential scales which are utilised to measure attitudes towards varied issues like war, religion etc. • These scales are considered most appropriate and reliable when used for measuring a single attitude. Demerits:
• The cost and efforts required to develop them is an important deterrent. • The values assigned to various statements by the judges may reflect their own attitude. • The method is not completely objective; it involves ultimately subjective decision process. Summated Scales or Likert-type Scales: These are developed by utilizing the item analysis approach wherein a particular item is evaluated on the basis of how well it discriminates between those persons whose total scores is high and those whose scores are low. Those items or statements that best meet this sort of discrimination test are included in the final instrument. The respondent indicates his agreement or disagreement with each statement in the instrument. Each response is given a numerical score, indicating its favourableness or unfavourableness, and the scores are totaled to measure the respondent’s attitude. Most frequently used summated scales in the study of social attitudes follow the pattern devised by Likert. For this reason they are often referred as Likert-type scales, respondent is asked to respond to each of the statements in terms of several degrees, usually five degrees of agreement or disagreement. For example when asked to express opinion whether one considers his job quite pleasant, the respondent may respondent any one of the following ways; strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree. Procedures: The procedure for developing a Likert-type scales are as follows: • As a first step, the researcher collects a large number of statements which are relevant to the attitude being studied and each of the statements expresses definite favourableness or unfavouableness to a particular point of view. • A small group of people from those who are going to be studied finally, are asked to indicate their response to each statement by checking one of the categories of statements. • The response to various statements are scored in such a way that a response indicative of the most favourable attitude is given the highest scores of 5 and that with the most unfavourable attitude is given lowest score, say 1. • Then the total scores of each respondent is obtained by adding his scores that he received for separate statements. • The next step is to array these total scores and find out those statements which have a high discriminatory power. For this purpose the researcher may select two extreme groups to represent the most favourable and least favourable attitudes and are used as criterion group by which to evaluate individual statements. This way we determine which statements consistently correlate with low favorability and which with high. • Only those statements that correlate with the total test should be retained in the final instrument and all others must be discarded from it. Advantage: Likert-type scales have several advantages:
• It is easy to construct the Likert-type scales in comparison to Thurstone-type scales because Likert type scales can be performed without panel of judges. • It is considered more reliable because under it respondents answer each statements included in the instrument • Each statements, included in Likert-type scales, is given an empirical test for discriminating ability and as such unlike Thrustone-type scales, the Likert-type permits the use of statements that are not manifestly related to the attitude being studied. • It can easily be used in respondent-centered and stimulus-centered studies. • It takes much less time to construct; it is frequently used by the students of opinion research. There is a high degree of correlation between Likert-type scales and Thurstone-type scales. Limitations: There are several limitations of the Likert-type scales: • With this scales, we can simply examine whether respondents are more or less favourable to a topic, but we can not tell how much more or less they are. • There is no basis for belief that the five positions indicated on the scales are equally spaced. • The interval between ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ may not be equal to the interval between ‘agree’ and ‘undecided’. • The total scores of an individual respondent have little clear meaning since a given total score can be secured by a variety of answer patterns. • It is unlikely that the respondent can validly react to a short statement on a printed form in the absence of real life qualifying situations. Cumulative Scales or Louis Guttman’s scalogram analysis: It is like other scales, consists of series of statements to which a respondent express his agreement or disagreement. The special feature of this type is that statements in it form a cumulative series. The statements are related to one another in such a way that an individual, who replies favourably to item no 4, also replies favourably to item no. 3, 2 and 1 and so on. This being so an individual whose attitude is at certain point in cumulative scales will answer favourably all the items on one side of this point, and answer unfavourably all items on the other side of this point. The individual’s scores is worked out by counting the number of points concerning the number of statements he answers favourably. The technique developed by Louis Guttman is known as scalogram analysis, or at times simply ‘scales analyses. Scalogram analysis refers to the procedure for determining whether a set of items forms a unidimensional scale. A scale is said to be unidimensional if the responses fall into a pattern in which endorsement of the items reflecting the extreme position results also in endorsing all items which are less extreme. Under this technique the respondents are asked to indicate in respect of each item whether they agree or disagree with it, and if these items form a unidimensional scale, the response pattern will be as under:
Item NumberResponse Score
X = Agree
- = Disagree
A score of 4 means that the respondent is in agreement with all statements which is indicative of the most favourable attitude. But score 3 would mean that the respondent is not agreeable with item 4 but he agrees with all others. In the same way one can interpret other values of the respondent’s scores. Procedure: The procedure for developing scalogram is as follows: • The universe of the contents must be defined first of all. • Develop a number of items relating the issue and to eliminate by inspection the items that are ambiguous, irrelevant or those that happens to be too extreme items. • The third step consists in pre-testing the items to determine whether the issue at hand is scalable. In a pre-test the respondents are asked to record their opinions on all selected items using a Likert-type- 5 point scale, ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. Respondent’s opinionannaire are then arrayed according to total score for analysis and evaluation. If the response forms a cumulative scale, its response category scores should decrease in an orderly fashion as indicated in the above table. • The next step is again to total the scores for various opinionnaires and to rearray them to reflect any shift in order, resulting from reducing the items, say, from 15 in pre-test to , say, 5 for the final scale. Whether the items or series of statements selected for final scale may be regarded a prefect cumulative, we have to examine on the basis of the coefficient of reproducibility. Guttman has set 0.9 as the level of minimum reproducibility in order to say that the scale meets the test of unidimensionality. He has given the following formula:
Guttman’s Coefficient of Reproducibility = 1-e/n(N)
Where e = number of errors
n = number of items
N = number of cases
Advantage: It has several advantages:
• It assures that only single dimension of attitude is being measured. • Researcher’s subjective judgment is not allowed to creep in the development of scale since the scale is determined by replies of the respondents. • It requires only a small number of items that make such a scale easy to administer. • Scalogram analysis can appropriately be used for personal, telephone or mail surveys. Disadvantage: There are certain disadvantages or limitations also: • In practice prefect cumulative or unidimensional scales very rarely found and we have only to use its approximation testing it through coefficient of reproducibility or examining it on the basis of some other criteria. • This method is not frequently used for the simple reason that its development procedure is tedious and complex. • Conceptually this analysis is a bit more difficult in comparison to other scaling methods. •
Interpretation and report writing; introduction, meaning of interpretation, techniques and precautions in interpretation and generalisation report writing- purpose, steps and format of research report and final presentation of the research report.
Meaning: The task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analysis and or experimental study is called interpretation. Interpretation is the device through which the factors that seems to explain what has been observed by researcher in the course of the study can be better understood. Interpretation provides a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further researches. It has two major aspects viz, (i) The efforts to establish continuity in research through linking the results of a given study with those of another, (ii) The establishment of some explanatory concepts.
Techniques: The task of interpretation requires a great skill of researcher. The art of interpretation can be achieved through practice and experience. The interpretation techniques involve the following steps: (a) The relation that the researcher has found must be reasonably explained. The researcher must interpret the lines of relationship in terms of the underlying process. He must also try to find out the thread of uniformity that lies under the surface layer of his concept of formulated. (b) While interpreting the final results of research study, the extraneous information that he has collected during the study, must be considered. This helps in understanding of the problem under consideration. (c) Before giving final interpretation, the researcher should consult someone who is expert in the concerned study and will not hesitate in pointing out the omission and errors in logical argumentation. Such consultations will result in correct interpretation and thus will enhance the utility of research results. (d) The false generalization of interpretation can be avoided by accomplishing the task of interpretation after considering all the relevant factors affecting the problem. The researcher should not make hurry while interpreting the results, otherwise the interpretation may lead to inaccurate results. Precautions: Even though the data are properly collected and analysed, wrong interpretation would lead to inaccurate conclusion. The following precautions must be taken while interpreting the results of a research process: (a) The researcher should confirm that:
(i) The data are appropriate, adequate and trustworthy for drawing inference.
(ii) Proper analysis has been done through statistical methods.
(iii) The data reflect good homogeneity.
(b) The researcher must avoid the errors that possibly arise in the process of interpreting results. The errors may arise due to false generalization or due to wrong interpretation of statistical measures such as the identification of correlation with causation, the application of finding beyond the range of observations, etc. The researcher must be well equipped with and must know the correct use of statistical measure for drawing inference concerning his study. (c) The researcher must always remember that his task is to make the sensitive observations of relevant occurrences and also identify the factors that are unknown to the world. This will enable him to do his job of interpretation more accurately. The broad generalization should be avoided, because the coverage of research may be restricted to a particular time, a particular area and condition. Such restriction must be specified while intepreating the results and then the results must be framed within their limitations. (d) The researcher must always keep in mind that ideally in the course of research study, there should be constant interpretation between empirical observations, theoretical conceptions and initial hypothesis. In the area of interaction between theoretical orientation and empirical observation, the opportunities for originality and creativity lie. (e) The researcher must always remember that the task of interpretation is intertwined with analysis. So he should take the task of interpretation as a special aspect of analysis and accordingly take the precautions which are to be taken while going through the process of analysis i.e. the precautions concerning the reliability of data, computational checks, validation and comparison of results.
Meaning: Research report s the oral or written presentation of evidence and findings in such detail and form as to be readily understood and assessed by the reader and so to enable him to verify the validity of the conclusions. It also helps the researcher himself to evaluate the success of his research efforts in this process, to clarify and check his own thoughts. Type: Research reports are of several types. This is because research reports vary greatly in length and type. For example, business firms prefers report in letter form just one or two pages in length. There are two types of reports: (a) Technical Report: It emphasis on (i) the method employed (ii) assumptions made in the course of study (iii) the detailed presentation of the findings, their limitations and supporting data. A technical report can be outlined as below: • Summary of results
• Nature of the study
• Methods employed
• Analysis of data and presentation of findings
• Technical appendices
It should, however, be remembered that even in a technical report simple presentation and ready availability of the findings remain an important consideration and as such liberal use of charts and diagram is considered desirable. (b) Popular report: The popular report is one which gives emphasis on simplicity and attractiveness. The simplification should be sought through clear writing, minimizing of technical, particularly mathematical, details and liberal use of charts and diagrams. Attractive layout along with large print, many subheadings, even an occasional cartoon now and then is another characteristics feature of the popular report. General outline of popular report is as follows: • The findings and their implications: It emphasis in the report is given on the findings of most practical interest and on the implications of these findings. • Recommendations for action: It is on the basis of the findings of the study is made in this section of the report. • Objective of study: A general review of how the problem arises is presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study. • Methods employed: A brief and non-technical description of the methods and techniques used, including a short view of the data on which study is based, is given in this part of report. • Results: This section constitutes the main body of the report wherein the results of the study are presented in clear and non-technical terms with liberal use of all sorts of illustrations such as charts, diagrams and like ones. • Technical appendices: More detailed information on method used, forms, etc. is presented in the form of the appendices. But theses appendices are often not detailed if the report is entirely meant for general public.
There can be several variations of the form in which a popular report can be prepared. The only important thing about such report is that it gives emphasis on simplicity and policy implications from the operational point of view. Steps: Research reports are the product of slow, painstaking, accurate inductive work. The steps involved in report writing are: (a) Analysis of subject matter: This is the first step primarily concerned with development of subject. The logical development is made on the basis of mental connection and association between one thing and another by means of analysis. (b) Final outline preparation: It is the next step in writing the report ‘Outlines are the framework upon which long written works are constructed. They are an aid to the logical organisation of the material and a reminder of the points to be stressed in the report’. (c) Preparing of the rough draft: This step happens to be most difficult part of all formal writing. Usually this step requires more time than the writing of the rough draft. The researcher should ‘see whether or not the material, as it is presented, has unity and cohesion, does the report stand upright and firm and exhibit a definite pattern, like marble arch? Or does it resemble an old wall of moldering cement and lose bricks’. He should check the mechanic of writing- grammar, spelling and usage. (d) Preparation of final bibliography: Next in order comes the task of the preparation of bibliography. The bibliography, which is generally appended to the research report, is a list of books in some way pertinent to the research which has been done. The entries in bibliography should be made as follows: For books and pamphlets
• Name of the author, last name first.
• Title, underlined to indicate italic.
• Place, publisher, and date of publication.
• Number of volumes.
Example: Kothari, C.R., Quantitative Techniques, New Delhi, Vikash PUBLISHING House Pvt Ltd., 1978. For magazines and newspapers:
• Name of the author, last name first.
• Title of article, in quotation marks.
• Name of the periodical, underlined to indicate italics. • The volume or volume and number.
• The date of issue.
• The pagination.
Example: Robert V., “Coping with Short-term International Money Flows”, The Bankers, London, September, 1971, p.995. (e) Writing the final draft: This constitutes the last step. The final draft should be written in a concise and objective style and in simple language, avoiding vague expression such as “ it seems”, “there may be” and like ones. Illustrations and examples based on common experiences must be incorporated in the final draft as they happen to be most effective in communicating the research findings to others. It must be remembered that every report should be an attempt to solve some intellectual problem and must contribute to the solution of a problem and must add to the knowledge of both the researcher and the reader.
Layout: The layout of the report means as to what the research report should contain. A comprehensive layout of research report should compromise of following: (A) Preliminary Pages: The preliminary page of a report should carry the following: (a) Title Page: The title page should carry:
• The name of the topic
• The relationship of the report to a course
• The name of the author
• The name of the institution where the report is to be submitted • The date of presentation of the report.
(b) Preface: The preface should be started with the brief introduction. It may include reasons why, in the first place, the topic was selected by researcher. Preface should also contain the objective of the research, sources of data for research study. (c) Acknowledgement: The acknowledgements are written to thank those who have helped the researcher for a variety of reasons. Preface/acknowledgement is usually signed or initiated by its writer. All pages in the preliminary section are numbered with Roman numerals. (d) Table of Contents: Table of content provides an outline of the content of the report. It appears after the preface/acknowledgement. It may contain only a list of chapters and their appropriate Roman numerals, followed by page numbers on which each chapter begins. (B) The Main Body or Text: The main text of the report should have following sections: (a) Introduction: The introductory chapter normally includes the following: • Statement of problem
• Objectives/purpose of the study
• Review of literature
• Justification for the present study
• Scope of the study
• Conceptual framework
• Methodology adopted
• Limitations of study
(b) Statement of Findings and Recommendations: After introduction a research report must contain statement of finding and recommendation in non-technical language so that it can be easily understood by all concerned. If the findings happen to extensive, at this point they should be put in summerised form. (c) Results: A detailed presentations of the findings of the study, with supporting data in the form of tables and charts together with a validation of results, is the next step in writing the main text of report. All relevant results must find a place in the reports. All the results should be presented in a logical sequence and splitted into readily identifiable section. (d) Implications of then results: Towards the end of the main text, the researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely. He should state the implications that flow from results of the study, for the general reader is interested in the implications for understanding the human behaviour. Such implications have three aspects: • A statement of inference drawn from the present study which may be expected to apply in similar circumstances. • The condition of the present study which may limit the extent of legitimate generalization of the inference drawn from the study. • The relevant questions that still remains unanswered or new questions raised by study along with suggestions for kind of research that would provide answers for them. (e) Summary: It has become customary to conclude the research report with a very brief summary, resting in brief the research problem, methodology, the major findings and major conclusions drawn from the research results. (C) End Matter: At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data such as questionnaires, sample information, mathematical derivations and the like ones. (i) Bibliography: Bibliography of the sources consulted should also be given. It is list of documents, books, periodicals, and manuscripts etc. which have some useful information of the given subject matter. (ii) Glossary: It contains explanation or sample definition of technical terms used in a particular paper. (iii) Appendices: An appendix is used for additional or supplementary material used which has not found place in the main text. (iv) Index: Index should invariably be given at the end of the report. The value of index lies in the fact that it works as a guide to the reader for contents in the report. Format: There are definite and set rules which should be followed in the actual preparation of the research report. The following points are to be taken care of while formatting a research report: (a) Size and physical design: The manuscript should be written on unruled paper 8/12 x 11 in size. If it is to be written by hand, then black or blue –black ink should be used. A margin of at least one and one-half inches should be allowed at left hand at least half an inch at right side of the paper. It is to be typed in double spacing on one side of the page only except for insertion of the long question. (b) Procedure: Various steps in writing the report should be strictly adhered. (c) Layout: Keeping in view the objectives and nature of the problem, the layout of the report should be thought of and decided and accordingly adopted. (d) Treatment of Quotations: Quotations should be placed in quotation mark and double spaced forming an immediate part of the text. But if a quotation is of a considerable length then it should be single-spaced and indented at least half an inch to the right of the normal text margin. (e) The footnotes: Regarding footnotes one should keep the following in view: • The footnotes serves two purposes viz, the identification of material used in quotations in the report and the notice of material not immediately necessary to body of research report text but still of supplemental value. The modern tendency is to make minimum use of footnotes. • Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference or quotation which they identify or supplement ends. Footnotes are customary separated from the textual material by a space of half an inch and a line. • Footnotes should be numbered, usually beginning with 1 in each chapter separately. • Footnotes are always typed in single space though they are divided from one another by double space. (f) Documentary style: Regarding documentation, the first footnote reference to any given work should be complete in its documentation, giving all the essential facts about the edition used. Such documentary footnotes follow a general sequence. (f) Punctuation and abbreviations: The first item after the number in footnote is author’s name, given in the normal signature order. This is given by a coma. The punctuation and abbreviations should be used correctly. (g) Use of Statistics: A judicious use of statistics in research report is often considered a virtue for it contributes a great deal towards the clarifications and simplification of the material and research results. Statistics are usually presented in the form of tables, charts, bars and line-graphs and pictograms.