Report Science

Topics: Solvent, Dry cleaning, Clothing Pages: 6 (1416 words) Published: September 17, 2014

Introduction:
Doing laundry has been a common household activity for years. Whether the techn­ology­ was­ beating the garments on rocks by the river or pushing buttons on programmed washing machines, this process depends on water and a mechanical action usua­lly assisted by soap or detergent. The purpose of a detergent is to remove ordinary stains and other matter. More often­ than not, the soap/detergent agent holds stains in suspension as they becomes loose during the wash cycle, and are subsequently flushed away during the rinse cycle and centrifugal spin. The drying process for doing laundry at home is either hanging clothes on a clothesline or tumbling them in a gas- or electric-heated dryer. Dry cleaning, on the other hand, is different. It's a process that cleans clothes without water. The cleaning fluid that is used is a liquid, and all garments are absorbed and cleaned in a liquid solvent -- the fact that there is no water is why the process is called "dry." Like many inventions, dry cleaning came about by accident. In 1855, Jean Baptiste Jolly, a French dye-works owner, noticed that his table cloth became cleaner after his maid accidentally overturned a kerosene lamp on it. Operating through his dye-works company, Jolly offered a new service and called it "dry cleaning." Early dry cleaners used a variety of solvents -- including kerosene -- to clean clothes and fabrics. The dry-cleaning industry is fairly new and has developed only during the past 75 years. Since World War II ended, a product known as perchlorethylene (perc) became the solvent choice for the industry. It was not only safer and faster, but did a much better job of cleaning, required less massive equipment, less floor space, and could be installed in retail locations offering excellent quality one-hour service. As a result of this innovation, the majority of clothes today are cleaned by perc. Perc is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics, hence it is sometimes called "dry-cleaning fluid." It has a sweet odor. When people drop clothes off at the cleaners, the employees follow a pattern that holds true at just about any dry-cleaning operation running today. Clothes go through the following steps: 1. Tagging and inspection – A method where small paper tags or little labels are written on a piece of clothing, these tags are used to identify clothes so they don't get mixed up. Clothes are also examined for missing buttons, tears, etc. that the dry cleaner might get blamed for otherwise. 2. Pre-treatment - The cleaners looks for stains on clothes and treats them to make removal easier and more complete. 3. Dry cleaning - The clothes are put in a machine and cleaned with a solvent. 4. Post-spotting - Any lingering stains are removed.

5. Finishing - This includes pressing, folding, packaging and other finishing touches. A dry cleaners profit will vary depending on several factors. It will vary depending on the prices they charge, the location they are in and how much business they do. On average, the salary of a dry cleaner is about $30,000 per year as of 2012. The findings, observed during the experiment, will be recorded. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_cleaning

Aim/ Task:
To design an experiment to test which type of solvent: Methylated spirits, Turpentine, Acetone, Water, Kerosene; is best for getting rid of each of the following stains: Ballpoint ink, Fresh oil paint, Nail Polish, Grease, Blue dye. Hypothesis:

The expectations for the experiment were that methylated spirits would work best on ballpoint ink because it used as a cleaner in daily housekeeping. It was thought that turpentine would go well with fresh oil paint because turpentine is mainly used as a solvent for oil based substances. Acetone and nail polish were predicted to work well due to the fact acetone is used as one of the volatile components of some paints and varnishes. Blue dye was foretold to work with water because water is often...
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