Report

Topics: Water, Water supply, Desalination Pages: 8 (1623 words) Published: June 24, 2013
Title page

1. Module Code: FC502 3T

2. Module Title: Skills for Study 2

3. Tutor Name: Tracey Blakeman

4. Name of Group: Group 3

5. Assessment Title: Report

6. Assignment Title: Write a recommendation report in which you compare two water provision methods for an arid region of your choice. You must consider the following requirements when comparing water methods which are cost and environmental impact.

7. Student ID Number: 200966602

8. Submission Date: Week 11, 10th May

9. Word account: 1232 words

Contents

1.0 Introduction 3

2.0 presentation of options4
2.1 Desalination 4
2.2 Groundwater5

3.0 requirements5
3.1 cost6
3.2 Environmental impact 7

4.0 Comparison of options 7
4.1 Cost 8
4.1.1 Desalination 9
4.1.2 Groundwater8
4.2 Environmental impact 9
4.2.1 Desalination 9
4.2.2 Groundwater 9

5.0 Conclusion 9

6.0 Recommendation 10

Reference list 11

1. Introduction

Water provision has always been the most important issue and the most difficult subject for an arid region especially extremely arid region such as Africa. Take Kenya for instance, which is ranks as the sixth most populous country in Africa. As all we know, Africa have abundant recourses, with the rapidly growth of economy, has led to a huge amount number of water consumption. moreover , According to the World Health Organization, only 45% of Kenyans have access to an improved water source, which is lower than the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of 70% .(Lifewater 2013) . In addition, nearly 884 million people in the world still do not get their drinking-water from improved sources, almost all of them in developing regions. Especially Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for over a third of that number. (WHO/UNICEF, 2010). The figure shows use of improved satiation facilities is low in Sub-Sahara Africa and South Asia. (Figure1) Thus, it is matter cannot be delay for getting water in the most cheaply and effective ways in these arid regions. So, the main purpose of this recommendation report is to compare two water provision methods which are desalination and groundwater for African, than make comparison between the options on terms of cost and environment impact.

Figure1
[pic](source:UNICEF)

2.0 presentation of options
2.1 Desalination
Desalination is a very useful method to solve shortage of freshwater problem but usually with the high cost. More specifically, desalination is the process of removing dissolved salts from water, thus producing fresh water from seawater or brackish water. (IDA 2013). Furthermore, South Africa’s biggest desalination plants was open on 2011 which has a capacity of 15 million mega litres per day and has had excellent rains and dams supplying the town are full. (MCSA 2011) That is, desalination is tending to being used as a powerful way to provide fresh water for human use in arid regions.

2.2 Groundwater
According to the UK Ground Forum (2013) groundwater refers to water is continually moving through the environment----we call this the water cycle. In other words, groundwater is located under the earth's surface when rain falls to the ground than leak into the soil. In addition, the UK Ground Forum also point out that groundwater is a abundant resources and usually with the very good quality, groundwater makes up nearly 70% of all the freshwater, we can seen from the below figure shows there are abundant groundwater resource for Africa use.(Figure2). In the developing world they usually relies on groundwater use for drinking, industry and agricultural so on, because according to article “why is groundwater important?”(2011) state that it can often be found groundwater is near the village which is easily to get, moreover, the most important point is groundwater doesn’t require expensive reservoirs to store water...
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