Feasibility of two fresh water supply techniques in Egypt.
It is important for humans to have access to clean water and in regards to economic development one of the most significant inputs is water (Allam and Allam, 2007:205). In countries like Egypt, the importance of water is recognized due to hot, dry summers with moderate winters; its desert climate results in aridity (FAO, 2013). A major part of the country is desert land with very low and uneven rainfall with an average of about 51mm annually (ibid). The Egyptian territory comprises of various basins, one of which is the Nile basin that covers about 33% of the country’s central part; however, it draws only 55.5x109m3 annually from the River Nile’s flow of 84x109m3 and totaled with its internal renewable water resource of 1.8x109m3, the availability of water in the country is still below the water stress limit of 1000m3 per head (ibid).
Rainfall in Egypt is unreliable and unpredictable and occurs during the winter months between October and March (FAO, 2013; NBCBN, 2013); therefore, water supply techniques need to be implemented to assure the availability of clean water.
The east of Egypt is bordered by the Red Sea making the option of desalination possible; however, the costs and adverse effects on the environment make it unappealing. A second option to be considered is water recycling. This option is cheaper and it also has a lower adverse effect on the environment. This report will analyze both desalination and water recycling techniques, based on cost, effects on the environment and social acceptance.
2.1 Geographic, Demographic and Economic Background
Egypt is situated in northern-eastern part of Africa. The country is bordered in the north by the Mediterranean Sea. It also bordered in the east by the Gaza Strip, Israel and the Red Sea, by Sudan in the south and in the west by Libya. It occupies a total land mass of 1,001,450 km2 (FAO, 2013) with an estimate population of 85,294,388. However, due to its aridity, 99% of
References: Adel-Shafy, H.I. and Aly, R.O. (2002). Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavours. CEJOEM, 8(1), 3-21. Allam, M.N. and Allam, G.I. (2007). Water Resources in Egypt: Future Challenges and Opportunities. Water International, 32(2), 205-218. AMTA (2007) AZIAB (2013). Red Sea Facts. Retrieved July 23rd, 2013 from: http://www.aziab.com/red%20sea%20facts.htm CIA (2013) CIWEM (2012). Water Reuse. Retrieved July 16th, 2013 from: http://www.ciwem.co.uk/policy-and-international/current-topics/water-management/water-reuse.aspx Dolnicar,S Dr. Sookbirsingh, R. (n.d.). Water Reclamation and Recycling Methods. Academia.edu. Retrieved July 22nd, 2013 from: http://www.academia.edu/207468/Water_Recycling_Methods EPA (2013) FAO (2013). Egypt. Retrieved June 20th, 2013 from: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/egypt/index.stm Farooq, S Hafez, A. and El-Manharawy, S. (2003). Economics of seawater RO desalination in the Red Sea region, Egypt. Part 1: A case study. Desalination, 153(1-3), 335-347. Kotb, T.H.S. et al (1999). Soil salinization in the Nile Delta and related policy issues in Egypt. Agricultural Water Management, 43(2000), 239-261. Lamei, A. et al (2008). Basic cost equations to estimate unit production costs for RO desalination and long-distance piping to supply water to tourism-dominated arid coastal regions of Egypt. Desalination, 225(1-3), 1-12. LENNTECH (2013). Reverse Osmosis Desalination Costs Analysis. Retrieved July 23rd, 2013 from: http://www.lenntech.com/processes/desalination/energy/general/desalination-costs.htm Lone Star Chapter (2008) Mizyed, N.R. (2013). Challenges to treated wastewater reuse in arid and semi-arid areas. Environmental science and policy, 25, 186-195. Rettner, R. (2011, September 8th). Would You Drink Recycled Sewage? Why It Grosses Us Out. Live Science. Retrieved July 23rd, 2013 from: http://www.livescience.com/15955-recycled-water-sewage-psychology.html Stacey, A